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Alpha-Hemolytic Streptococcus

Alpha Hemolytic Streptococcus


Presentation

  • The present case showed that group G alpha-hemolytic S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis can be associated with serious invasive infection and poststreptococcal sequelae.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Virulence factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumolysin and anti phagocytic capsule Clinical presentation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumonia URTI- otitis media, sinusitis Meningitis Septicemia Spontaneous bacteria peritonitis Endocarditis Predisposing[quizlet.com]
  • Some species that can cause infection are also present in some healthy people but cause no symptoms. These people are called carriers.[netdoctor.co.uk]
  • Four cases of iatrogenic meningitis caused by viridans streptococci and a review of the literature are presented here. Observations and a case control study implicated a single anesthesiologist as the source.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The disease presents with various clinical manifestations, including arthritis, carditis, chorea, subcutaneous nodules, and erythema marginatum. Rheumatic fever may be the result of host genetic predisposition.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Workup

Gram-Positive Bacteria
  • BACKGROUND: Infections caused by antibiotics-resistant Gram-positive bacteria have been reported from many pediatric hematology-oncology centers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) are gram-positive bacteria that grow in culture as pairs or chains of variable length.[pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
  • Definition (NCI) A genus of Gram-positive bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes and the lactic acid bacteria group. Definition (MSH) A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced.[fpnotebook.com]
Gram-Positive Coccus
  • - Discussion: - gram positive coccus - spetrum of streptococci pyogenes infections: - most common cause of celluitis and lymphangitis; - superficial form of infection is called impetigo which affects stratum corneum; - ecthyma contagiosum describes shallow[wheelessonline.com]
  • Microbiological characteristics Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive coccus. Usually they are found in pairs of cocci, or diplococci, but they may also occur in short chains or singly.[web.uconn.edu]
  • Autolysis is common when aging occurs; the central colonies gram positive coccus. The cells are lancet shaped, colonies are large ,This organism is an encapsulated Pathogenesis activate alternate complement pathway cells to the focus of infection.[forums.prohealth.com]
  • The Pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) DISCUSSION Streptococcus pneumoniae , or the pneumococcus, is a lancet-shaped (pointed like a lance) Gram-positive coccus 0.6-1.2 µm in diameter.[bio.libretexts.org]
  • G ENERAL DESCRIPTION M icrobiology Streptococcus pyogenes , or Group A streptococcus (GAS), is a facultative, Gram-positive coccus which grows in chains and causes numerous infections in humans including pharyngitis, tonsillitis, scarlet fever, cellulitis[antimicrobe.org]
Positive Throat Culture
  • An asymptomatic carrier state, as evidenced by positive throat culture results obtained on a weekly basis, is not treated with antibiotics. The most common reason for oral antibiotic failure for streptococcal pharyngitis is noncompliance.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Treatment

  • Alternative treatment Alternative treatment focuses on easing the symptoms of strep throat through herbs and botanical medicines.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • […] of Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumonia URTI- otitis media, sinusitis Meningitis Septicemia Spontaneous bacteria peritonitis Endocarditis Predisposing conditions: hyposplenism, asplenism, alcoholism, malignancy, any chronic diseases, immunosuppression Treatment[quizlet.com]
  • Famciclovir for the treatment of acute herpes zoster: effects on acute disease and postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. ‎[books.google.com]
  • Aggressive treatment of such infections and close follow-up care are essential.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Minor infections may not require treatment or may be treated with antibiotics. Invasive infections usually result in a hospital stay. Severe invasive infections may require intensive treatment with intravenous antibiotics for 7-10 days.[yourgenome.org]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Patients with strep throat begin feeling better about 24 hours after starting antibiotics. Symptoms rarely last longer than five days. People remain contagious until after they have been taking antibiotics for 24 hours.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Prognosis GAS is responsible for more than 2,000 deaths a year. About one in five people infected with flesh-eating bacteria die. So do three out of every five people who develop streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.[encyclopedia.com]
  • Long-term prognosis is generally thought to be excellent, but some studies found that up to 20% of patients develop urinary abnormalities ( 13 ).[antimicrobe.org]

Etiology

  • Abstract After introduction of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD), a change toward an increase of infections by Staphylococcus epidermidis and alpha-hemolytic Streptococci has been noticed in the predominant etiology of infections[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Objective of this study is to analyze the bacteriological etiology of complicated appendicitis in pediatric population.[idsa.confex.com]
  • […] pyogenes , but all beta hemolytic streptococci and a few non - beta hemolytic streptococci ( S. dysgalactiae ) Lancefield Group A Streptococci (GAS) S. pyogenes Lancefield Group B Streptococci (GBS) S. agalactiae "pneumococcus" Streptococcus pneumoniae Etiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • It is an important etiological agent of upper and lower respiratory tract infections (URTI and LRTI) , bacteremia and septicemia. Streptococcus pneumoniae is also associated with otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis and endocarditis.[microbeonline.com]
  • A recommended initial antibiotic regimen is a beta-lactam (often a broad-spectrum drug until etiology is confirmed by culture) plus clindamycin .[merckmanuals.com]

Epidemiology

  • Modes of transmission, age distribution of cases, and other epidemiologic features are similar to those for streptococcal pharyngitis.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • […] and CMV, and less commonly due to streptococci; other agents causing ST include diphtheria, tularemia, toxoplasmosis, brucellosis, salmonellosis, TB; true ST has a 2-4 day incubation, dysphagia, headache, malaise, fever, anorexia, N&V, abdominal pain Epidemiology[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • We review the epidemiological factors that increase risk of infection and the clinical manifestations and management of this emerging infectious disease.[academic.oup.com]
  • Epidemiology S. pneumoniae most commonly inflicts children, the elderly, and other people with weakened immune systems.[web.uconn.edu]
  • Sub-typing strains of GAS has proven invaluable for epidemiological studies, in much the same way that phage typing has been useful to define the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus .[antimicrobe.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Recent interest in the pathophysiology of this disorder has focused on the role of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPEs), extracellular products of group A streptococci that mediate not only scarlatiniform-like rashes but also multi-organ damage and[antimicrobe.org]

Prevention

  • Prevention There is no way to prevent getting a strep throat.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Streptococcus Pneumoniae Disease. 03 September 2008. . 04 December 2009. 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumonia Can Be Prevented. 01 December 2009. 07 December 2009. 3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[austincc.edu]
  • Prevention Most newborn cases can be prevented by testing women in the thirty-fifth to thirty-seventh week of pregnancy for the bacteria. A culture of fluid from the vagina and rectum * can determine whether a woman has GBS.[humanillnesses.com]
  • Prevention Washing the hands frequently, especially before eating and after using the bathroom, and keeping wounds clean can help prevent strep infection.[encyclopedia.com]
  • prevention, but an effective vaccine would have to provide protection from multiple serotypes.[emedicine.medscape.com]

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