Amanita Muscaria Poisoning (Fly Agaric Fung Caus Tox Effct)

Amanita Muscaria Poisoning is related to the following process: Poison.

Presentation

Skin
Flushing
  • But you will never get a better chance to experiment than with this flush right here, right now.[honest-food.net]
  • In all but the most severe cases, aggressive IV fluid treatment can slowly flush the toxins from the system in the excreted urine.[namyco.org]
  • Vomiting the fungi is important, and often is followed up with an activated charcoal treatment and fluid therapy to help flush out the toxins.[pewaukeeveterinaryservice.com]
  • Within half an hour a warm and slightly flushed face was noticed, without changes in blood pressure or heart rate, with no physic stimulation, but lassitude followed by sleep.[inchem.org]
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  • Eyes
    Blurred Vision
    • You may notice (on higher doses), slightly blurred vision, watery eyes and/or a bit of a runny nose.[shroomery.org]
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  • psychiatrical
    Agitation
    • This is followed by psychomotor agitation with euphoria or depression, anxiety, illusions, auditory and visual hallucinations.[uconnemig.wordpress.com]
    • Clinical findings Patient becomes drowsy 20 to 90 minutes after ingestion, then manic/agitated; in children, seizures may occur.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    • Origin: USA, NC Distribution: Throughout NC Poison Part: Mushroom Poison Delivery Mode: Ingestion Symptoms: Patient appears to be intoxicated, hallucinations, drowsiness, vomiting, nausea, stomach pains, diarrhea, muscle spasms, hypotension, agitation[plants.ces.ncsu.edu]
    • They key to treating these patients is good supportive care with benzodiazepines as needed for agitation.[thepoisonreview.com]
    • In cases of serious poisoning it causes a delirium , similar in effect to anticholinergic poisoning it is characterised by bouts of marked agitation with confusion, hallucinations, and irritability followed by periods of central nervous system depression[thepoisondiaries.tumblr.com]
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  • cardiovascular
    Tachycardia
    • Physical examination revealed tachycardia (pulse 127/min) along with mitosis and warm, dry skin.[thepoisonreview.com]
    • Fever, hematuria, tachycardia, hypotension, rapid volume depletion, and fluid and electrolyte imbalance also may be present.[research.vet.upenn.edu]
    • Other symptoms that may occur include bloody diarrhea (gastroenteritis), vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, fever, fast irregular heartbeats (tachycardia), high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), yellowing of the skin (jaundice[pewaukeeveterinaryservice.com]
    • There are generally not marked changes in vital signs, but tachycardia and bradycardia have occasionally been reported.[uconnemig.wordpress.com]
    • The symptoms are tachycardia (racing heart) and palpitations, tingling arms and legs, warmth and flushing, and sometimes headache, heavy limbs, salivation.[namyco.org]
    Hypertension
    • Her physical examination showed no pathologies except for a slight hypertension (160/90 mmHg) and dry mucous membranes.[academic.oup.com]
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  • musculoskeletal
    Muscle Twitch
    • Its symptoms after oral intake are described by Richard Schultzes and Albert Hofmann as confusion, disoreantation in situation and time perception, disturbance of visual function and hearing, muscle twitching, weariness, fatigue and sleep.[magic-mushrooms.net]
    • Some myoclonic muscle twitching followed, then sleep with dreams.[inchem.org]
    Muscle Cramp
    • They may include: drowsiness, confusion, dizziness, ataxia, euphoria, delirium, visual and auditory disturbances with hallucinations, muscle cramps and spasms.[inchem.org]
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  • gastrointestinal
    Abdominal Pain
    • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain typically occur a few hours after ingestion.[helsenorge.no]
    • She presented to the ED the following day due to fatigue and abdominal pain.[uconnemig.wordpress.com]
    • The following are some of the more common symptoms associated with mushroom poisoning: Vomiting Diarrhea Abdominal pain Weakness Lethargy Yellowing of the skin ( jaundice ) Uncoordinated movements Excessive drooling ( ptyalism ) Seizures Coma Poisonous[petmd.com]
    • They begin as sudden, severe abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea.[research.vet.upenn.edu]
    • Other symptoms that may occur include bloody diarrhea (gastroenteritis), vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, fever, fast irregular heartbeats (tachycardia), high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), yellowing of the skin (jaundice[pewaukeeveterinaryservice.com]
    Abdominal Cramps
    • Eventually she’ll suffer from abdominal cramps, vomiting, and severely dehydrating diarrhea.[slate.com]
    • Second stage is a period of about 24 hours characterized by violent vomiting, bloody diarrhea, and severe abdominal cramps.[namyco.org]
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  • respiratoric
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  • neurologic
    Confusion
    • Even trained mycologists may confuse toxic varieties with nonpoisonous or edible ones.[research.vet.upenn.edu]
    • At least some of the confusion comes from varying definitions and uses of the terms "toxic" and "poisonous".[erowid.org]
    • Symptoms of ibotenic/muscimol poisoning (isoxazol poisoning) The initial symptoms of ibotenic acid poisoning are drowsiness, nausea and occasionally vomiting, usually followed an hour later with a group of central nervous system symptoms: confusion, mild[mykoweb.com]
    • In California, a number of immigrants have confused it with the edible paddy straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea , which is harvested in Asia.[slate.com]
    • In cases of serious poisoning it causes a delirium , similar in effect to anticholinergic poisoning it is characterised by bouts of marked agitation with confusion, hallucinations, and irritability followed by periods of central nervous system depression[thepoisondiaries.tumblr.com]
    Agitation
    • This is followed by psychomotor agitation with euphoria or depression, anxiety, illusions, auditory and visual hallucinations.[uconnemig.wordpress.com]
    • Clinical findings Patient becomes drowsy 20 to 90 minutes after ingestion, then manic/agitated; in children, seizures may occur.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    • Origin: USA, NC Distribution: Throughout NC Poison Part: Mushroom Poison Delivery Mode: Ingestion Symptoms: Patient appears to be intoxicated, hallucinations, drowsiness, vomiting, nausea, stomach pains, diarrhea, muscle spasms, hypotension, agitation[plants.ces.ncsu.edu]
    • They key to treating these patients is good supportive care with benzodiazepines as needed for agitation.[thepoisonreview.com]
    • In cases of serious poisoning it causes a delirium , similar in effect to anticholinergic poisoning it is characterised by bouts of marked agitation with confusion, hallucinations, and irritability followed by periods of central nervous system depression[thepoisondiaries.tumblr.com]
    Ataxia
    • Psilocybin spp psilocybin-mediated onset in minutes: anxiety, mydriasis, ataxia, tacycardia, dyskinesia, hallucinations, delirium Disulfram-like; e.g.[lifeinthefastlane.com]
    • The first symptoms typically occur 30 minutes to 2 hours post-ingestion, with dizziness, ataxia, and sedation.[uconnemig.wordpress.com]
    • […] and the amount ingested per body weight, effects can range from nausea and twitching to drowsiness, cholinergic crisis -like effects (low blood pressure , sweating and salivation ), auditory and visual distortions, mood changes, euphoria , relaxation, ataxia[thepoisondiaries.tumblr.com]
    • Clinically affected dogs usually present within 12 hours following ingestion of mushrooms and show signs of vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, general body twitching, tremors, ataxia, hepatic encephalopathy and diarrhea.[vetbook.org]
    • Initial drowsiness is followed by ataxia, confusion, agitation, illusions or even manic excitement.[inchem.org]
    Excitement
    • These periods of excitement may alternate with periods of somnolence, deep sleep or stupor.[inchem.org]
    • Fly Agaric raises blood pressure and excites the central nervous system and is therefore dangerous.[thepoisondiaries.tumblr.com]
    • The combination of these opposing pathophysiologic effects results in an oscillation between lethargy and excited behavior, which may swing back and forth several times during the clinical course.[uconnemig.wordpress.com]
    • Drink a little and you won't experience anything particularly exciting, but too large a doze will kill you.[slowlife.se]
    • Muscarine binds with muscarinic acetylcholine receptors leading to the excitation of neurons bearing these receptors.[eol.org]
    Tremor
    • Because of the particular toxins within these items, a cat that has eaten poisonous mushrooms, a moldy piece of food, or unbaked bread dough may begin staggering, appear to be confused, have tremors or seizures, vomit, have diarrhea, become bloated, or[wagwalking.com]
    • The fungus that causes grass staggers (tremors, stumbling and muscle spasms) in stock animals is an endophyte – it grows within the grass without harming it.[teara.govt.nz]
    • Clinically affected dogs usually present within 12 hours following ingestion of mushrooms and show signs of vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, general body twitching, tremors, ataxia, hepatic encephalopathy and diarrhea.[vetbook.org]
    • Poisoning is rare, but ingesting a larger amount can cause muscle tremors and other symptoms requiring hospital treatment.[helsenorge.no]
    • Gyromitra spp gyromitrin-mediated symptoms CNS symptoms: headache, ataxia, fatigue, nystagmus, tremor, bertigo, seizures (rare) 2-3 days: delayed hepatotoxicity (rare) 1-3 days after hepatotoxicity: hemolysis and methemoglobinaemia Immunohaemolytic, e.g[lifeinthefastlane.com]
    Hyperreflexia
    • Amanita muscaria and panterina 30min-2h: delirium, dysphoria, drowsiness, haullcinations, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, seizures Epileptogenic, e.g.[lifeinthefastlane.com]
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  • Entire body system
    Agitation
    • This is followed by psychomotor agitation with euphoria or depression, anxiety, illusions, auditory and visual hallucinations.[uconnemig.wordpress.com]
    • Clinical findings Patient becomes drowsy 20 to 90 minutes after ingestion, then manic/agitated; in children, seizures may occur.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    • Origin: USA, NC Distribution: Throughout NC Poison Part: Mushroom Poison Delivery Mode: Ingestion Symptoms: Patient appears to be intoxicated, hallucinations, drowsiness, vomiting, nausea, stomach pains, diarrhea, muscle spasms, hypotension, agitation[plants.ces.ncsu.edu]
    • They key to treating these patients is good supportive care with benzodiazepines as needed for agitation.[thepoisonreview.com]
    • In cases of serious poisoning it causes a delirium , similar in effect to anticholinergic poisoning it is characterised by bouts of marked agitation with confusion, hallucinations, and irritability followed by periods of central nervous system depression[thepoisondiaries.tumblr.com]
    Fever
    • In susceptible people, this irritating pollen causes hay fever.[novascotia.ca]
    • Fever, hematuria, tachycardia, hypotension, rapid volume depletion, and fluid and electrolyte imbalance also may be present.[research.vet.upenn.edu]
    • Carbuncles sometimes occur with a fever.[livingnaturally.com]
    • Other symptoms that may occur include bloody diarrhea (gastroenteritis), vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, fever, fast irregular heartbeats (tachycardia), high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), yellowing of the skin (jaundice[pewaukeeveterinaryservice.com]
    • A very few severe reactions, including fevers and deaths, have been reported in contexts of psilocybin poisoning of small children; "grazing" accidents by toddlers should be treated in a hospital.[namyco.org]
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  • Jaw & Teeth
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  • Workup

    Treatment

    Prognosis

    Complications

    Fever
    • In susceptible people, this irritating pollen causes hay fever.[novascotia.ca]
    • Fever, hematuria, tachycardia, hypotension, rapid volume depletion, and fluid and electrolyte imbalance also may be present.[research.vet.upenn.edu]
    • Carbuncles sometimes occur with a fever.[livingnaturally.com]
    • Other symptoms that may occur include bloody diarrhea (gastroenteritis), vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, fever, fast irregular heartbeats (tachycardia), high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), yellowing of the skin (jaundice[pewaukeeveterinaryservice.com]
    • A very few severe reactions, including fevers and deaths, have been reported in contexts of psilocybin poisoning of small children; "grazing" accidents by toddlers should be treated in a hospital.[namyco.org]
    Hypertension
    • Her physical examination showed no pathologies except for a slight hypertension (160/90 mmHg) and dry mucous membranes.[academic.oup.com]
    Mushroom Poisoning
    • The clinical manifestations of mushroom poisoning syndromes and the diagnostic evaluation of patients with mushroom poisoning are reviewed here.[uptodate.com]
    • Mushroom poisoning of companion animals, particularly dogs, is a potentially underestimated problem in North America.[veterinarymedicine.dvm360.com]
    • Causes of Mushroom Poisoning in Dogs Mushroom poisoning in dogs occurs when a canine ingests a toxic mushroom(s).[petmd.com]
    • Scleroderma Symptoms of Mushroom Poisoning Mushroom poisoning symptoms depend on the species of mushroom ingested, the specific toxin the mushroom contains, and the individual animal's susceptibility.[healthypets.mercola.com]
    • TITLE : Mushroom poisoning: Report of three cases with one death.[accessdata.fda.gov]
    Hallucinations
    • Visual and auditory hallucinations occurred in four of them, whereas a 18-year-old girl lost consciousness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
    • A young man experienced strong hallucinations after consuming eight dried Amanita muscaria.[slowlife.se]
    • One 18-year-old girl had particularly severe visual hallucinations, then lost consciousness.[uconnemig.wordpress.com]
    • Amanita muscaria Amanita muscaria contains muscimol that produces feelings of euphoria, hallucinations, muscle jerks, drowsiness, sweating, pupil dilation, and increased body temperature.[faculty.washington.edu]
    • Origin: USA, NC Distribution: Throughout NC Poison Part: Mushroom Poison Delivery Mode: Ingestion Symptoms: Patient appears to be intoxicated, hallucinations, drowsiness, vomiting, nausea, stomach pains, diarrhea, muscle spasms, hypotension, agitation[plants.ces.ncsu.edu]
    Anticholinergic Syndrome
    • Patients can develop symptoms similar to anticholinergic or cholinergic poisoning; however, the use of atropine or physostigmine as an antidote is not recommended as muscimol and ibotenic acid do not produce a true anticholinergic syndrome nor do they[eol.org]

    Etiology

    Causes

    Hypertension
    • Her physical examination showed no pathologies except for a slight hypertension (160/90 mmHg) and dry mucous membranes.[academic.oup.com]

    Epidemiology

    Sex distribution
    Age distribution

    Pathophysiology

    Prevention

    Summary

    Patient Information

    Self-assessment

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    References

    • Ibotenic acid in Amanita muscaria spores and caps - FC STOeRMER, GRYEB KOLLER, K JANAK - Mycologist, 2004 - Elsevier
    • A consideration of the properties of poisonous fungi - WW Ford, ED Clark - Mycologia, 1914 - JSTOR
    • Burdock root tea poisoning - PD Bryson, AS Watanabe, BH Rumack - JAMA: The Journal of , 1978 - Am Med Assoc
    • “Legal highs” on the net—Evaluation of UK-based Websites, products and product information - MM Schmidt, A Sharma, F Schifano - Forensic science , 2011 - Elsevier
    • Hallucinogenic plants of abuse - N Cunningham - Emergency Medicine Australasia, 2008 - Wiley Online Library
    • One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics - JM Moncalvo, R Vilgalys, SA Redhead - Molecular phylogenetics , 2002 - Elsevier
    • Amanita phalloides-type mushroom poisoning - K Healey, OF Woo, KR Olson, SM Pond - Western Journal of , 1982 - ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
    • Amanita mushroom poisoning - DH Mitchel - Annual Review of Medicine, 1980 - annualreviews.org
    • “Legal highs” on the net—Evaluation of UK-based Websites, products and product information - MM Schmidt, A Sharma, F Schifano - Forensic science , 2011 - Elsevier
    • Arriola Garrido, Andoni - B Bravo Serrano, D Buss, AJ Cano Sanz, R Davies - diazdesantos.es
    • Amanita muscaria toxicosis in two dogs - JH Rossmeisl, MA Higgins, DJ Blodgett - Journal of Veterinary , 2006 - Wiley Online Library
    • Amanita muscaria: chemistry, biology, toxicology, and ethnomycology - D Michelot, LM Melendez-Howell - Mycological research, 2003 - Elsevier
    • Acute poisoning: an update. - CW Raymond - Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1977 - ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
    • 5 Mushroom Toxins - J Hajslova, V Schulzova - Bioactive Compounds in Foods, 2009 - books.google.com
    • Amanita muscaria: chemistry, biology, toxicology, and ethnomycology - D Michelot, LM Melendez-Howell - Mycological research, 2003 - Elsevier
    • A dictionary of hallucinations - JD Blom - 2009 - books.google.com
    • Glossary of Terms - DG Spoerke - Handbook of Mushroom Poisoning: Diagnosis and , 1994 - books.google.com
    • Amanita muscaria: chemistry, biology, toxicology, and ethnomycology - D Michelot, LM Melendez-Howell - Mycological research, 2003 - Elsevier
    • Accidental outbreak of non-bacterial food poisoning - AS Kushwaha, BSK Aggarwal - Journal Armed Forces , 2008 - researchgate.net
    • A dictionary of hallucinations - JD Blom - 2009 - books.google.com
    • Approach to the poisoned patient - EP Krenzelok, JB Leikin - Disease-a-Month, 1996 - Elsevier
    • “Legal highs” on the net—Evaluation of UK-based Websites, products and product information - MM Schmidt, A Sharma, F Schifano - Forensic science , 2011 - Elsevier
    • Caveat cenans!* - WA Valente, RJA Talbert, JP Hallett - American journal of , 2002 - ramsey1.chem.uic.edu
    • Amanita muscaria: chemistry, biology, toxicology, and ethnomycology - D Michelot, LM Melendez-Howell - Mycological research, 2003 - Elsevier
    • 14. Anti-allergic drugs and antihistamines - RS Weisman, L Goldfrank - Human Toxicology, 1996 - books.google.com
    • Abdominal examination [link] abdominal pain [link],[link],[link] abrasions [link] abscesses [link] Acanthamoeba [link] - GC Scale - ohexpwm.oxfordtextbookofmedicine.
    • Anticholinergic poisoning with adulterated intranasal cocaine - AL Weiner, MJ Bayer, CA McKay, M DeMeo - The American journal of , 1998 - Elsevier
    • Amanita muscaria: chemistry, biology, toxicology, and ethnomycology - D Michelot, LM Melendez-Howell - Mycological research, 2003 - Elsevier
    • A study of cultural bias in field guide determinations of mushroom edibility using the iconic mushroom, Amanita muscaria, as an example - W Rubel, D Arora - Economic Botany, 2008 - Springer

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