Persons with amebiasis may or may not manifest the disease. Symptoms, if any, include flatulence, alternating diarrhea and constipation, and abdominal cramps. In advanced cases, the patient may complain of fever, abdominal tenderness and passage of bloody, mucoid stools (frank dysentery). Dehydration is imminent. The patient is emaciated and possibly anemic from chronic infection and malnutrion. A large mass (ameboma) may obliterate the intestines.
Extraintestinal amebiasis can cause suppurative infection of the liver parenchyma (abscess), fever, chills, sweating, general debility, nausea, vomiting, and pain in the upper right quadrant. Amebas may spread to other organs, including the lungs or brain, the skin, especially around the buttocks, genitals, or wounds from abdominal surgery or injury.
Complications of amebic colitis include ameboma, toxic megacolon, fulminant or necrotizing colitis, and rectovaginal fistula. Hepatic amebiasis or liver abscess may lead to intrapericardial, intrathoracic, or intraperitoneal rupture, with or without secondary bacterial infection; invasion of the pleural or pericardial cavity; and migration to the brain via blood route and development of brain abscess. Other complications include GI bleeding, bowel perforation, peritonitis, stricture formation, empysema and intussusception  .
Entire Body System
Mild illness causes crampy abdominal pain, little or no fever, and semiformed, foul-smelling stools. Mucus may be present but usually without blood. Soft stools or diarrhea may alternate with constipation. [thirdworldtraveler.com]
or amoebic liver abscesses (fever, chills, abdominal pain, weight loss, hepatomegaly) that can be fatal if not immediately treated. [orpha.net]
In some people, however, for unknown reasons, the amebae invade the walls of the large intestine, where they cause abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea (dysentery), and sometimes fever. [humanillnesses.com]
A 41-year-old man presenting with lower abdominal pain, constipation, abdominal distention, fever (37.5 degrees C) and fatigue was evaluated, and a mass localized to the left lower abdomen was identified. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Weight Loss
You may experience fatigue, loss of appetite, and some weight loss. The symptoms at this stage are similar to those of giardiasis. [thirdworldtraveler.com]
Symptoms include stomach cramps, watery or bloody diarrhea and weight loss. You have successfully created a MyPHO account! Use MyPHO to save content relevant to you, take online courses and register for subscriptions. [publichealthontario.ca]
Symptoms include: fever, cough, dull abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, ulcers, constipation, gas, hepatomegaly, cough, and weight loss. [web.stanford.edu]
The mild form of amebiasis includes nausea (a feeling of sickness in the stomach), diarrhea (loose stool/poop), weight loss, stomach tenderness, and occasional fever. [health.ny.gov]
[…] manifestations that may range from an asymptomatic state to amoebic colitis (violent abdominal pain, a painful contracted feeling around the anal sphincter, blood and mucus in the stools but without the presence of fever), or amoebic liver abscesses (fever, chills [orpha.net]
Article Summary X Although amebiasis can resolve itself, if you’re experiencing symptoms such as fever or chills, bloody diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, or alternating constipation and diarrhea, consult your doctor for treatment to speed up recovery. [wikihow.com]
Sweating, chills, weight loss, and fatigue may also be present. Diagnosis Medical diagnosis of amebiasis is extremely important. [thirdworldtraveler.com]
Severe cases have fever, chills and bloody or mucoid diarrhea. In some instances, the disease-causing organism (pathogen) can invade other parts of the body. [bccdc.ca]
More severe cases may experience fever, chills and/or diarrhea with blood or mucous. Amebiasis is spread by consuming contaminated food or water, or touching contaminated surfaces. It can also spread sexually through oral-anal contact. [simcoemuskokahealthstats.org]
Reviewed here are the associations and interactions of malnutrition, IgA and interferon-gamma, human leukocyte antigen alleles, and parasite genotypes to the outcome of infection. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] spread: Through food or water contaminated with stools Through fertilizer made of human waste From person to person, particularly by contact with the mouth or rectal area of an infected person Risk factors for severe amebiasis include: Alcohol use Cancer Malnutrition [nlm.nih.gov]
People affected may develop anemia due to loss of blood. [dbpedia.org]
People affected may develop anemia. If the parasite reaches the bloodstream, it can spread through the body and end up in the liver causing amoebic liver abscesses. Liver abscesses can occur without previous diarrhea. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Wasting of the body (emaciation) and anemia can occur in people with chronic infection. Sometimes large lumps (amebomas) may form inside the large intestine (colon). In some people, the amebas spread to the liver where they can cause an abscess. [merckmanuals.com]
- Dry Cough
A 53-year-old man presented with a dry cough and mild fever. Chest radiography revealed an abnormal solitary mass lesion in the right upper lung field. The clinical diagnosis was a bacterial lung abscess. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dry cough, chest pain and decreased breath may be due to pleuropulmonary extension of the inflammatory process in the lesions of the superior surface. Hepatomegaly is the most important physical sign in hepatic amebiasis. [scielo.br]
The median duration of acute diarrhea was 5 (1-10) days in Group I and 4.5 (1-10) days in Group II (p=0.965). [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
In some cases, it invades the colon wall, causing colitis, acute dysentery, or long-term (chronic) diarrhea. The infection can also spread through the bloodstream to the liver. In rare cases, it can spread to the lungs, brain, or other organs. [nlm.nih.gov]
Unlike diarrhea caused by bacteria, amebic diarrhea has a gradual onset and does not usually cause the high fever associated with bacterial infections. [empr.com]
- Abdominal Pain
After treatment, the median interval from admission to defervescence was 2 days, to normalization of white cell count 3 days, and to resolution of abdominal pain 4 days. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
pain, a painful contracted feeling around the anal sphincter, blood and mucus in the stools but without the presence of fever), or amoebic liver abscesses (fever, chills, abdominal pain, weight loss, hepatomegaly) that can be fatal if not immediately [orpha.net]
KEYWORDS: Adverse reaction; Amebiasis; Metronidazole; Nausea [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The mild form of amebiasis includes nausea (a feeling of sickness in the stomach), diarrhea (loose stool/poop), weight loss, stomach tenderness, and occasional fever. [health.ny.gov]
The symptoms of intestinal amoebiasis include diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, bowel movements streaked with blood or mucus, nausea or vomiting and occasionally fever. [doctor.ndtv.com]
Minor side effects like nausea and metallic taste in mouth may be observed with these drugs. You may also be prescribed some medications for diarrhoea, if present. [surgerydoor.co.uk]
- Abdominal Cramps
The symptoms and signs include loose stools, mild abdominal cramping, frequent, watery, and/or bloody stools with severe abdominal cramping (termed amoebic dysentery) may occur, flatulence, appetite loss, and fatigue. [medicinenet.com]
Mild symptoms may include: Abdominal cramps Diarrhea: passage of 3 to 8 semiformed stools per day, or passage of soft stools with mucus and occasional blood Fatigue Excessive gas Rectal pain while having a bowel movement ( tenesmus ) Unintentional weight [nlm.nih.gov]
You may generally think that occasional abdominal cramps with some loose motion and gas as a sign of indigestion, but it can also be a more serious condition called amoebiasis (also known as amebiasis or entamobiasis). [homeremediesforall.com]
Additional symptoms may include fever, and abdominal cramping and pain. In severe cases, ulcers may form in the intestinal wall; the amebae gain access to the bloodstream and travel to the liver to form abscesses. [healthcentral.com]
- Abdominal Tenderness
Symptoms, if any, include flatulence, alternating diarrhea and constipation, and abdominal cramps. In advanced cases, the patient may complain of fever, abdominal tenderness and passage of bloody, mucoid stools (frank dysentery). [symptoma.com]
Examination of the abdomen can show enlargement of the liver or abdominal tenderness. [byebyedoctor.com]
Instead, they may note fever, upper abdominal pain, and an enlarged, tender liver. Sweating, chills, weight loss, and fatigue may also be present. Diagnosis Medical diagnosis of amebiasis is extremely important. [thirdworldtraveler.com]
Abdominal tenderness and weight loss are common with amebic colitis. Amebic liver abscess presents with right upper quadrant pain. May not present with diarrhea, but will usually have a preceding history of diarrhea. Rare cause of brain abscess. [us.bestpractice.bmj.com]
[…] loss Severe symptoms may include: Abdominal tenderness Bloody stools, including passage of liquid stools with streaks of blood, passage of 10 to 20 stools per day Fever Vomiting The health care provider will perform a physical exam. [nlm.nih.gov]
Liver, Gall & Pancreas
Amebiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infants and children with hematochezia or hepatomegaly, especially in endemic areas. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] asymptomatic state to amoebic colitis (violent abdominal pain, a painful contracted feeling around the anal sphincter, blood and mucus in the stools but without the presence of fever), or amoebic liver abscesses (fever, chills, abdominal pain, weight loss, hepatomegaly [orpha.net]
Hepatomegaly was seen. On auscultation, breath sounds were decreased in the right lower lung field along with presence of pleural rub. [scielo.br]
– Amoebic dysentery • diarrhoea containing red blood and mucus • abdominal pain, tenesmus • no fever or moderate fever • possibly signs of dehydration – Amoebic liver abscess • painful hepatomegaly; mild jaundice may be present • anorexia, weight loss [medicalguidelines.msf.org]
The diagnosis of amebiasis requires collection of fecal sample from the patient for subsequent tests . Microscopic examination may not always reveal the presence of the amebas (trophozoites and/or cysts). Two methods are currently available:
- In vitro reaction of parasite protein (antigen) with specific antibody and
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Molecular diagnostic technique to identify ameba's genetic material. PCR amplifies the ameba's genetic material when present and makes detection possible even with minute quantities of reagents. Both tests are sensitive and specific. Routine microscopy examination may require three to six repeat ed stool examinations and differential diagnosis of ameba species is difficult based on gross morphology.
Parasites may not be found in the stool in extraintestinal amebiasis. Appropriate diagnostic methods are ultrasonography, CT scan, or MRI, with serological test for anti-ameba antibodies to confirm liver abscess or infection in other sites. Given a strong index of suspicion, the physician may initiate treatment with an amebicidal drug and if the patient responds well, the disease is presumed to be amebiasis.
In patients with multiple abscesses, or bacterial infection, the leukocytosis may be severe, accompanied by neutrophilia, with an increased percentage of immature forms similar to a leukemoid reaction . [scielo.br]
Development of such fulminant course is found to be associated with various factors including male gender, age over 60 years, associated liver abscess, progressive abdominal pain, and signs of peritonitis, leukocytosis, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and [casesjournal.biomedcentral.com]
- Entamoeba Histolytica
Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar trophozoites stained with trichrome. Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar trophozoites have a single nucleus, which have a centrally placed karyosome and uniformly distributed peripheral chromatin. [cdc.gov]
histolytica. 61 Montano S...Lopez-Contreras L 30744531 2020 7 Formation of oxidized (OX) proteins in Entamoeba histolytica exposed to auranofin and consequences on the parasite virulence. 61 Shaulov Y...Ankri S 32017328 2020 8 Identification of <i>Entamoeba [malacards.org]
Pleuropulmonary amebiasis is an uncommon complication of Entamoeba histolytica infection. It typically occurs in endemic regions including Central and South America, Africa and the Indian subcontinent. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Amebiasis, also be spelled amoebiasis, is an infectious disease, caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. [librepathology.org]
This Entamoeba histolytica ameba under an electron microscope. The amebds extensions are called "pseudopodia" (soo-do-PO-de-a). [humanillnesses.com]
Patients were stratified as right-sided colitis and proctosigmoiditis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Colonic Ulcer
In spite of absence of cyst and trophozoites in pus, stool, and biopsy of colon diagnosis of amoebic ulcers with amoebic liver abscess was kept due positive serology and response to metronidazole. [atmph.org]
Gross features: Amebic lesions begin as small foci of necrosis that progress to ulcers. In the early stages the colonic ulcers have a narrow neck and thus appear as small nodules with a minute surface opening (5 mm in diameter). [histopathology-india.net]
Ulcers. 61 Premkumar M...Joshi YK 31304698 2019 35 Biliary Peritonitis due to a Ruptured Amebic Liver Abscess Mimicking a Periampullary Tumor and Liver Metastases with the Elevation of CA 19-9 and CA 125: A Case Report. 61 Marin-Leiva J...Damian Bello [malacards.org]
Reason #5: Severe amebic disease is associated with high fatality Following ingestion, infective cysts transform to invasive trophozoites, which leads to the development of mucosal inflammation and colonic ulcers . [journals.plos.org]
The current drug of choice for amebiasis is metronidazole or tinidazole , which kills the trophozoites in the intestine and other organs. Metronidazole is taken daily for several days, whereas tinidazole is given as a single large dose, with fewer side effects. Dehydrated patients are given fluids. Alcoholic drink is contraindicated since it may cause nausea, vomiting, flushing and headaches. These drugs are not to be taken by pregnant women.
Metronidazole and tinidazole do not kill ameba cysts that are in the large intestine. A second drug (such as diloxanide, paromomycin, or iodoquinol) is prescribed to eliminate the cysts, thus prevent a relapse. These drugs may be taken by asymptomatic individuals who are positive for cysts both for prophylaxis and for eliminating the source of contamination of the environment with the infective stage of the parasite.
Amebiasis is among the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries. Susceptibility to infection and fatality rates vary with age, nutritional status, immune status , and involvement of extraintestinal foci. Severity of amebiasis is more pronounced in young children, especially neonates; malnourished individuals; pregnant and postpartum women; those on corticosteroids and those with immune deficiencies and/or malignancies.
Treatment of intestinal amebiasis with appropriate drugs is straightforward but there is no immunity following previous infections nor guarantee against reinfections. Complete elimination of the intestinal forms can prevent the occurrence of extraintestinal amebiasis. Ninety percent (90%) of persons with intestinal amebiasis are asymptomatic and only 4-10% of them developed colitis or extraintestinal amebiasis after a one year follow-up period.
Effective treatment with amebicidal drugs has kept mortality rates below 1% for patients with uncomplicated liver abscess. On the other hand, hepatic amebiasis can be complicated by intraperitoneal rupture in 2-7% of patients and higher mortality rates can result from this .
Amebiasis is infection with the protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, which has two clinical manifestations i.e., intestinal amebiasis (colitis. diarrhea, dysentery) and extraintestinal amebiasis (liver abscess, pleuropulmonary, cardiac, and cerebral involvement).
Other species of Entamoeba are: E coli, E dispar, E moshkovskii, E polecki, E coli, and E hartmanni. These too reside in the human intestinal lumen as commensals (non-pathogenic) and should be differentiated from E histolytica as the only potentially pathogenic species. E dispar and E moshkovskii have been recovered from patients with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms; however, their role in the pathogenesis of amebiasis remains to be verified.
E dispar and E histolytica are indistinguishable from each other by light microscopy. Molecular techniques have shown them as two different species, with E dispar being the commensal (as in patients with HIV infection) and E histolytica, the pathogenic species.
Co-infections with E histolytica and E dispar have been reported in many individuals, with E dispar being 10 times more common than E histolytica. In Brazil and Egypt, E dispar and E histolytica infections are equally prevalent . In Western countries, E dispar has been isolated from 20%-30% of MSM (men having sex with other men).
Transmission of E histolytica is primarily through the ingestion of fecally contaminated food and water containing cysts, or through the hands of food handlers. Sexual transmission occurs via oral-anal practices (anilingus). Malnutrition, resulting in immune deficiency , is a risk factor in amebiasis .
Amebiasis in the United States is approximately 4% of the total population. Of these, only 10% of E histolytica infections are invasive, and only 1% of those positive for E histolytica by stool examination actually develop symptomatic amebiasis. Asymptomatic E dispar infection is 10 times more prevalent than E histolytica.
About 50 million cases of amebiasis due to E histolytica are reported each year, with 100,000 deaths worldwide. This is presumed to be an underestimation, representing as it is, the so-called tip of the iceberg, since only 10%-20% of infected individuals become symptomatic  . Amebiasis is among the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries .
Infection with the protozoan parasite E histolytica is associated with proteolysis, tissue damage and host-cell apoptosis in humans and presumably nonhuman primates. Ingested E histolytica cysts from contaminated food and water or oral-anal sex undergo excystation in the terminal ileum or colon. Each mature cyst can give rise to four highly motile trophozoites which will colonize the intestinal mucosa, causing tissue lysis and ulcerations. Meanwhile, trophozoites may find their way in the bloodstream and migrate to the liver, lung, and other sites, causing further damage thereat. With physiological changes in conditions in the intestinal lumen, the amebas may transform into cysts that are excreted in the feces. Excreted cysts when ingested by the next susceptible host will initiate a new infectious cycle.
The trophozoite's ability to invade the colonic epithelium is facilitated by a 260-kd surface protein, galactose/N -acetylgalactosamine (GAL/GalNAc)–specific lectin, containing a 170-kd subunit and a 35-kd subunit  . IgA antibody binds to this lectin receptor, killing the ameba thus, preventing reinfection .
Amebapores, which are peptides capable of forming pores in bimolecular lipid layers of cell membranes are responsible for cytolysis and apoptosis of the parasite. Trophozoite-induced apoptosis in liver abscess was observed with a non-Fas and non–tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α1 receptor pathway in experimental animal models . Amebapores can also induce apoptosis at sublytic concentrations.
Cysteine proteinases are involved in colonization of the gut and may amplify interleukin (IL)-1–mediated inflammation just as human IL-1–converting enzyme would cleave IL-1 precursor to its active form . The anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a and immunoglobulins, IgA and IgG are likewise cleaved and inactivated by cysteine proteinases .
E histolytica is equipped with 100 putative transmembrane kinases (TMKs), of which there are 9 subgroups. EhTMKB1-9 is found in proliferating trophozoites and is induced by serum. This was shown to be involved in phagocytosis and virulence of E histolytica in amebic colitis. Thus, TMKs such as EhTMKB1-9 may serve as potential targets for future drug development.
- The only lasting control of amebiasis is in breaking the cycle of transmission through sanitary human waste disposal, keeping food and water free from contamination with infective cysts, and good personal hygiene practices especially among food handlers. Treat all infected persons with amebicidal drugs for both trophozoite and cystic forms of the parasite.
- Amebiasis vaccine is in the developmental stage, with prospective candidates in the pipeline, expected to be available soon.
- The choice of vaccine material and its efficacy in ensuring long-term protective immunity are important considerations both for clinical and public health applications .
Amebiasis is an infectious disease of the large intestine, liver and other organs that is caused by the protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica . The parasite undergoes two developmental stages, namely:
- A motile, vegetative, and tissue-invasive form, trophozoite and
- A dormant, infective form, cyst.
The infective stage or cyst is transmitted directly from one person to another, or through food and water. The trophozoite or vegetative stage invades the intestinal mucosa, causing diarrhea or fulminant dysentery in intestinal amebiasis. Involvement of the liver and other organs such as the skin or brain is called extra-intestinal amebiasis.
Affected persons may be asymptomatic or may experience a variety of clinical manifestations such as alternate diarrhea and constipation, abdominal tenderness, cramps, malaise, and fever. Asymptomatic persons may be cyst-passers that is, cysts are found in their stools. Cyst is the infective stage to man. Trophozoites are found in the stools of patients with diarrhea or dysentery. These are motile amebas, usually seen with ingested red blood cells under the microscope.
Diagnosis is by routine microscopic examination of fecal smears or liver aspirate, and if needed, colonoscopy or ultrasonography, and blood tests. Oral anti-trophozoite drugs are taken by patients with diarrhea or dysentery, with another amebicide to eliminate the cysts.
Amebiasis is common in areas where fecal contamination of food and water is rampant due to poor sanitation. These are in Africa, the Indian subcontinent, parts of Central and South America, and Asia. In the United States, there are cases among immigrants and sometimes in travelers who might have acquired the infection from developing countries.
Amebiasis is an infectious disease primarily of the intestines caused by the protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica. The ameba can reside in the large intestine (colon) with other species of amebas as commensals without causing disease. When conditions permit as when the innate immunity of the human host is impaired, the parasite may invade the intestinal wall, cause ulcers or perforations, and manifest clinically as colitis, chronic diarrhea, or at its worst, acute dysentery.
From the intestines the amebas can migrate via the blood route to the liver, causing liver abscess. In severe cases the lungs, brain, skin and other organs may become involved.
Infection with Entamoeba histolytica cysts is acquired from ingestion of ameba cysts from contaminated food or water, through the unwashed hands of food handlers, through oral-anal sex, or in some places, when human waste is used as fertilizer.
The symptoms of amebiasis range from mild to severe. Mild symptoms are:
- Diarrhea: Passage of 3 to 8 semiformed stools per day, or passage of soft stools with mucus and occasional blood
- Abdominal cramps
- Painful and unproductive bowel movement (tenesmus)
- Weight loss
Severe symptoms include:
- Dysentery: Passage of bloody, mucoid stools more than 10 times a day
- Abdominal tenderness
- Microscopic examination of Direct Fecal Smears for trophozoites and/or cysts, repeated over several days
- Serological examinations for ameba antigens using specific antibody especially for extraintestinal amebiasis
- Colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy (internal examination of the lower large intestine)
- Microscopic examinatiion of tissues from infected organs such as liver aspirate
- Amebicidal drug, metronidazole (kills the trophozoites) for symptomatic case; other amebicide such as diloxanide, for asymptomatic case or cyst-passer
- Supportive treatment and drugs to control vomiting
- Drink plenty of fluids, water for dehydrated patients
- Antibiotics (if co-existing bacterial infection is suspected)
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