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Amebic Hepatitis


Presentation

  • Presented in a quick reference, bullet point format, this book includes more than 250 clinical photographs, figures, tables and flow charts.[books.google.com]
  • Amebic hepatitis, however, presenting as obscure fever has been insufficiently described.[nejm.org]
  • Case presentation This report describes a 37-year-old white man, suffering from hepatitis B, with a gigantic amebic liver abscess presenting as an acute abdomen due to its rupture.[jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com]
  • In a majority of patients presenting with symptoms of short duration, the consideration of hepatoma does not arise.[bhj.org.in]
Malaise
  • A 30-year-old male experienced diarrhea for two weeks with fever of 39 C, nausea, vomiting, malaise and right upper abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed hepatomegaly 6 cm below the right costal margin.[gastrohep.com]
  • General discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling (malaise ) Sweating Chills Loss of appetite Weight loss Diarrhea Jaundice Joint pain Exams and Tests These tests detect abscess in the liver: Abdominal ultrasound Abdominal CT scan or MRI Liver biopsy - rarely[vikaspedia.in]
  • […] abscess do have symptoms, including: Abdominal pain, more so in the right, upper part of the abdomen; pain is intense, continuous or stabbing Cough Fever and chills Diarrhea (in only one-third of patients) General discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling ( malaise[medlineplus.gov]
  • May cause mainly systemic symptoms (eg, fever, malaise) and can occur when certain drugs are used Sarcoidosis Granulomatous infiltration (common, usually subclinical), jaundice (rare) Occasionally, progressive inflammation with scarring and portal hypertension[merckmanuals.com]
  • Anorexia, malaise and weight loss are also frequently seen. Depending on the immune status of the patient, and the organism involved, the presentation may be dramatic or insidious.[radiopaedia.org]
Pathologist
  • Confidently prepare for the upcoming recertification exams for clinical pathologists set to begin in 2016.[books.google.de]
  • The diagnosis of amebic abscess was made by the pathologists who identified E. histolytica in the debris. Conclusion Acute abdomen due to a ruptured amebic liver abscess is extremely rare in western countries where the parasite is not endemic.[jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com]
Low Fever
  • fevers, abdominal cramps, increased gas, and milder and firmer diarrhea.[medbroadcast.com]
  • There is palpably thickened gut, and low fever. There is abdominal distension in more severely ill patients passing relatively small amounts of stool sometimes.[patient.info]
Gangrene
  • Divided into fifteen sections, it covers numerous different disorders including swellings, ulcers, constipation, jaundice and gangrene.[books.google.com]
  • […] single-celled, parasitic organisms; resulting in severe diarrhea: "The team of doctors developed a simple mechanism for the purification of water in an effort to diminsh and overcome the outbreak of amebic dysentery in the rural areas of the country." amebic gangrene[wordinfo.info]
Hepatomegaly
  • Selected Infections With Liver Involvement Disease or Organism Manifestations Viruses Cytomegalovirus In neonates: Hepatomegaly, jaundice, congenital defects In adults: Mononucleosis-like illness with hepatitis; may occur posttransfusion Epstein-Barr[merckmanuals.com]
  • Physical examination revealed hepatomegaly 6 cm below the right costal margin. CT scan showed a single hypodense mass in the rigth lobe of 7.8 x 5.2 cm, round, with well defined borders. Seroameba titers were positive (1:512).[gastrohep.com]
  • ALP isoenzyme test (Medical Encyclopedia) Ascites (Medical Encyclopedia) Diet - liver disease (Medical Encyclopedia) Hepatic encephalopathy (Medical Encyclopedia) Hepatomegaly (Medical Encyclopedia) Liver disease (Medical Encyclopedia) Liver scan (Medical[icdlist.com]
  • The frequency of symptoms did not correlate significantly with egg counts while 70% of patients had hepatomegaly, only 0.5% had splenomegaly [27].[saudijgastro.com]
  • Although one finds a tender hepatomegaly in both the conditions, jaundice is more frequent in alcoholic hepatitis. Liver scan, if available, would immediately exclude an amoebic liver abscess.[bhj.org.in]
Tremor
  • In man, emetine poisoning is characterized by muscular tremors, weakness and pain in the extremities which tend to persist until drug administration is stopped. Gastro-intestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting and bloody diarrhoea.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)体外衝撃波結石破砕術(ESWL) extrahepatic bile duct肝外胆管 f facial pallor 顔面蒼白 familial polyposis coli家族性大腸ポリポーシス症候群 fatty degeneration脂肪変性 feces (stool)糞便 fibroma線維腫 fissure of anus (anal fissure)裂肛、痔裂 fistula瘻孔 fistula ani痔瘻 flapping tremor[tokyo-med.ac.jp]

Workup

Pericardial Effusion
  • Effusion & Cardiac Activity.[books.google.com]
  • During this procedure, we could demonstrate the drainage of pericardial effusion through the pericardial fistula and the subsequent film revealed a significantly decreased amount of residual pericardial effusion.[ispub.com]
  • . - Involvement of pericardium results in pericardial effusion, amebic pericarditis, cardiac tamponade and cardiac failure. - Rarely liver abscess or a lesion in the colon may spread amebae to the brain by hematogenous route.[histopathology-india.net]
  • Abscesses of the left lobe of the liver or those more centrally located are more prone to pericardial complications that range from asymptomatic pericardial effusion to cardiac tamponade.[clinicalgate.com]
Echinococcus Multilocularis
  • A review of clinical features of 33 indigenous cases of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in Alaskan Eskimos. ‎ Seite 184 - Hayes, EB, Matte, TD, O'Brien. TR. McKinley, TW. Logsdon, GS, Rose. JB, Ungar, BLP. Word, DM.[books.google.de]

Treatment

  • Reference is easy thanks to a unique 3-part structure covering general aspects of treatment; reviews of every agent; and details of treatments of particular infections.[books.google.com]
  • Treatment Metronidazole plus iodoquinol, or chloroquine phosphate plus either emetine or dehydroemetine are used to treat amebic hepatitis.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Effectively monitor the pace of drug clearing in patients undergoing pharmacogenomic treatments with a new chapter on this groundbreaking new area.[books.google.de]
  • Amebic hepatitis: Laboratory findings and treatment with erythromycin. Am. J. Trop. Med. 4 :812, 1955. Google Scholar 11. Kasliwal, R. M. , and Bhatta, M. L. Liver changes in chronic intestinal amoebiasis. J. Indian M. A. 27 :127, 1956.[link.springer.com]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis is highly variable, depending not only on the organism involved and size of the abscess but also the co-morbidities present. Figures range from 9-80% 3.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Prognosis [ 2 ] In uncomplicated disease, the mortality rate is less than 1% but is much higher in complicated severe disease - eg, fulminant amoebic colitis, chest involvement or cerebral amoebiasis.[patient.info]
  • Prognosis In most cases, rapid clinical improvement is observed in less than 1 week with antiamebic drug therapy alone. Radiological resolution lags behind the resolution of clinical symptoms.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Etiology

  • Gram negative bacteria are the most common etiology. Whether, entamoeba Histolytica invaded the renal abscess remains to be proven.[omicsonline.org]
  • Changes in etiology, management and outcome. Medicine [Baltimore] 1996;75:99-113. 11. Mukhopadhyay M, Saha AK, Sarkar A, Mukherjee S. Amoebic liver abscess: Presentation and complications. Indian J Surg 2010;72:37-41. 12.[jacmjournal.org]
  • Isolation of the Etiological Agent of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis from Artificially Heated Waters. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 34(6), 701-705. Thong, Y. (1982). Chemotherapy for Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis.[floridahealth.gov]
  • Etiology The following are the risk factors associated with amebic liver abscess: Immigrants from endemic areas Institutionalized persons, especially people with mental retardation Crowding and poor hygiene Men who have sex with men (secondary to sexually[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Both of these infections, however, were greatly overshadowed by acute diarrhea of unrecognized etiology, which reached a peak incidence of 215 per annum per 1,000 strength in July 1944.[history.amedd.army.mil]

Epidemiology

  • A review of the geographic distribution and epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the New World. ‎ Seite 54 - Hendrix TR: Epithelial and other mucosal lesions of the jejunum in giardiasis. Jejunal biopsy studies.[books.google.de]
  • The Epidemiology of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis in the USA, 1962-2008. Epidemiol Infect. Jul;138(7):968-75. Epub 2009 Oct 22. Located at[floridahealth.gov]
  • Definition / general Infection by pathogenic species of amebae, overwhelmingly Entamoeba histolytica Epidemiology Estimated that 10% of the world's population is infected with E. histolytica It is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions In temperate[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Invasive amoebiasis most often causes an amoebic liver abscess but may affect the lung, heart, brain, urinary tract and skin. [ 5 ] Epidemiology E. histolytica infects approximately 50 million people worldwide, of which approximately 100,000 die annually[patient.info]
  • To characterize the clinical and epidemiological features of invasive amebiasis in HIV-1 patients, the medical records of 170 co-infected cases were analyzed retrospectively, and E. histolytica genotype was assayed in 14 cases.[journals.plos.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • […] appendix Involvement of the terminal ileum may occur Metastasis may occur, overwhelmingly to the liver Disease may spread from the liver to the thorax or rarely the brain Rectovesical fistula and fistulous involvement of the skin have been reported Pathophysiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Pathophysiology E histolytica exists in 2 forms. The cyst stage is the infective form, and the trophozoite stage causes invasive disease.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Get optimal test results with guidance on error detection, correction, and prevention as well as cost-effective test selection.[books.google.de]
  • From the Departments of Medicine and Public Health and Preventive Medicine Cornell University Medical College New York[link.springer.com]
  • Prevention. Environmental sanitation is necessary to prevent water and food contamination. Boiling or filtration of drinking water is a safe and effective way of prevention, and avoidance of consuming contaminated food is essential. Comments.[atlas.or.kr]
  • In general, the measures taken to prevent amebiasis in individual areas of military operation were part of those taken to prevent all forms of gastrointestinal infection.The only additional requirement for the prevention of amebiasis was based upon the[history.amedd.army.mil]
  • Asymptomatic individuals can be treated with a luminal amebicide to prevent symptoms. Those with symptoms can be treated with a systemically-active compound, followed by a luminal amebicide.[bccdc.ca]

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