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Amoebiasis due to Free-Living Amoebae

Infection by Acanthamoeba


Presentation

  • It provides a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of opportunistic infections and presents strategies for infection prevention and control.[books.google.com]
  • Presentation on theme: "Free-Living Amoebae Dr. Amira Taman."— Presentation transcript: 1 Free-Living Amoebae Dr.[slideplayer.com]
  • This presentation is often more aggressive in cases due to Balamuthia mandrillaris when compared to cases due to Acanthamoeba spp 4.[radiopaedia.org]
  • The present research was the first study to address the presence of potentially pathogenic free living amoebae in Kaleybar and Khodaafarin, East-Azerbaijan Province.[cwejournal.org]
Fever
  • , trench fever, human erlichiosis; and more.[books.google.com]
  • People may have no symptoms or may have diarrhea, constipation, cramping abdominal pain, tenderness in the upper abdomen, and fever.[msdmanuals.com]
  • Some early symptoms might include a combination of the following:• Severe headache• Stiff neck, or neck pain with neck movement• Sensitivity to light• Nausea and vomiting• Unusual fatigue• Fever• Difficulty walking or talking• Sudden one-sided weakness[slideshare.net]
  • The amoebae may be transported via the blood to the liver and other organs and usually do NOT give rise to a high temperature (this can be useful ie bloody diarrhoea with a fever suggests a bacterial infection) and a seriously debilitated condition.[netdoctor.co.uk]
  • Patients with an amebic abscess of the liver complain of pain in the chest or abdomen, fever, nausea, and tenderness on the right side directly above the liver.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Fatigue
  • Weight loss and fatigue can also occur. If the amoebic dysentery goes untreated, it can progress to extraintestinal amoebiasis, although this is rare.[study.com]
  • Symptoms of Amebiasis Diarrhea, possibly containing blood or mucus Rectal pain during bowel movements (tenesmus) Intestinal gas (excessive flatulence) Severe abdominal cramping and tenderness Excessive gas Loss of weight High fever Fatigue Nausea and[healthcommunities.com]
  • But it may cause milder chronic symptoms of: frequent loose stools abdominal pain cramps fatigue intermittent constipation diarrhoea with abdominal swelling flatulence. Amoebae are parasites that are found in contaminated food or drink.[netdoctor.co.uk]
  • These could include: Diarrhea Dysentery Fatigue Fever Excessive gas Rectal pain, occurring with bowel movement Vomiting It is possible for the protist to enter the circulatory system and continue to invade other organs, such as the liver, lungs, and sometimes[dovemed.com]
  • Some early symptoms might include a combination of the following:• Severe headache• Stiff neck, or neck pain with neck movement• Sensitivity to light• Nausea and vomiting• Unusual fatigue• Fever• Difficulty walking or talking• Sudden one-sided weakness[slideshare.net]
Cat Scratch
  • Features up-to-date information on HIV/AIDS, with an emphasis on Africa; malaria; tropical gastroenterological problems; dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever; tuberculosis; Sexually Transmitted Diseases; SARS; avian flu; bartonellosis, cat-scratch disease[books.google.com]
Nasal Discharge
  • discharge tissue biopsy spx fpr saline wet mounts of Naegleria fowleri (3) demonstration of ameboid trophs in brain lesions bacteria overlayed on non-nutrient agar for culture of Naegleria fowleri cleared tracks visible within areas of bacterial growth[quizlet.com]
Nausea
  • Symptoms include headaches, stiff neck, nausea and vomiting, tiredness, confusion, lack of attention to people and surroundings, loss of balance and bodily control, seizures, and hallucinations.[ehagroup.com]
  • Some early symptoms might include a combination of the following:• Severe headache• Stiff neck, or neck pain with neck movement• Sensitivity to light• Nausea and vomiting• Unusual fatigue• Fever• Difficulty walking or talking• Sudden one-sided weakness[slideshare.net]
  • Symptoms of a liver abscess include: fever and weakness abdominal swelling and pain cough nausea (feeling sick) jaundice loss of appetite weight loss The symptoms of amoebic dysentery usually last a few days to several weeks.[your.md]
  • Symptoms include fever, sweats, chills, weakness, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and pain or discomfort in the upper right part of the abdomen over the liver. Rarely, amebas spread to other organs (including the lungs or brain).[msdmanuals.com]
  • Symptoms of Amebiasis Diarrhea, possibly containing blood or mucus Rectal pain during bowel movements (tenesmus) Intestinal gas (excessive flatulence) Severe abdominal cramping and tenderness Excessive gas Loss of weight High fever Fatigue Nausea and[healthcommunities.com]
Eye Pain
  • . – Symptoms - watering of eyes, eye pain with photophobia, blurred vision and irritation are common.• Signs - include conjunctival hyperemia, episcleritis, scleritis and loosening of the corneal epithelium.[slideshare.net]
  • Symptoms - watering eyes, eye pain with photophobia, blurred vision and irritation. Signs include ptosis, conjunctival hyperaemia, episcleritis, scleritis and loosening of the corneal epithelium. Stromal infiltrates can be seen with a bright light.[patient.info]
  • The mentioned infection causes severe eye pain, uveitis wounds, photophobia and blindness (Dart, 1993). Unlike amoebic keratitis, granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) has been reported only from immunocompromised individuals.[cwejournal.org]
Ptosis
  • Signs include ptosis, conjunctival hyperaemia, episcleritis, scleritis and loosening of the corneal epithelium. Stromal infiltrates can be seen with a bright light.[patient.info]
Headache
  • Symptoms include headaches, stiff neck, nausea and vomiting, tiredness, confusion, lack of attention to people and surroundings, loss of balance and bodily control, seizures, and hallucinations.[ehagroup.com]
  • Some early symptoms might include a combination of the following:• Severe headache• Stiff neck, or neck pain with neck movement• Sensitivity to light• Nausea and vomiting• Unusual fatigue• Fever• Difficulty walking or talking• Sudden one-sided weakness[slideshare.net]
  • […] flagellates and cysts never found in tissue or CSF 12 1ry amoebic meningoencephalitis Children and young adult Previously healthy History of bathing, swimming, diving or playing in warm stagnant, fresh water Few days to 2 weeks prior to onset of symptoms Headache[slideplayer.com]
  • N. fowleri was cultured from the water. [ 12 ] Presentation : similar to bacterial/viral meningitis: Symptoms - headache, photophobia, nausea and vomiting.[patient.info]
  • Patients with GAE have been described with symptoms that include: headache, low fever, seizures, hemiparesis, and coma leading to eventual death 2.[radiopaedia.org]

Workup

  • In addition to standard blood tests, other laboratory studies employed for diagnosis include microscopy, culture, serologic testing, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (see Workup).[emedicine.medscape.com]

Treatment

  • Features: Every chapter has been extensively revised and updated, nearly half with new author teams NEW chapter on acute encephalitis NEW clinical information on treatment of tuberculosis, non-tubercular mycobacterial infections, brain abscess, and Lyme[books.google.de]
  • Describes the latest therapies, such as recently approved drugs and new treatment options, so you can incorporate them into to your practice.[books.google.com]
  • It is not indicated for the treatment of asymptomatic cyst passage.[checkorphan.org]
  • The lack of established success in treatment means that there is no single, proven, evidence-based treatment that carries a high probability of cure, although in recent times miltefosine shows promise.[patient.info]
  • It's important to avoid drinking alcohol during treatment. Even if you have to treat yourself, it's important to see a doctor to ensure that the treatment has been truly effective.[netdoctor.co.uk]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis The prognosis depends on the location of the infection and the patient's general health prior to infection.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • (Outcomes/Resolutions) The prognosis of an individual with Amebiasisis generally good with proper treatment A subsequent check of the individual’s infection status after treatment may ensure complete eradication of the amoeba Additional and Relevant Useful[dovemed.com]
  • Prognosis : Mortality of GAE is high, reaching almost 100% when skin lesions and CNS disease both occur together.[patient.info]
  • […] literature, but can include the following brain lesions 6 : multiple parenchymal lesions pseudotumoural lesions meningeal exudates hemorrhagic infarcts (more common in Balamuthia mandrillaris ) necrosis (more common in Balamuthia mandrillaris ) Treatment and prognosis[radiopaedia.org]
  • Prognosis The prognosis for Acanthamoeba is worse than for many other types of infectious keratitis and prevention is therefore very important. However, especially if caught early, satisfactory outcomes can certainly be achieved.[eyewiki.aao.org]

Etiology

  • Etiology and Incidence Two of the eight known species of Acanthamoeba, A. castellanii and A polyphaga , are responsible for most infections.[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • Background Amebiasis is caused by Entamoeba histolytica (see the image below), a protozoan that is found worldwide (see Etiology). [1, 2, 3, 4] The highest prevalence of amebiasis is in developing countries where barriers between human feces and food[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Meanwhile, N. fowleri, was reported to be the etiological agent for 12 cases of PAM in Thailand [ 22, 23 ].[journals.plos.org]

Epidemiology

  • It provides a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of opportunistic infections and presents strategies for infection prevention and control.[books.google.com]
  • Epidemiology : Most reports are from the USA and India. Very rare - estimated at 1 in 2.6 million exposed individuals.[patient.info]
  • Epidemiology of Acanthamoeba spp. and Naegleria fowleri Both of these organisms are distributed globally in the environment, however, they rarely cause disease.[ehagroup.com]
  • . • Epidemiology - the incidence of AK is 3 per 100,000 and around 85% of cases occur in people who wear contact lenses• Presentation - secondary bacterial infection occurs commonly, making it difficult to diagnose. – Symptoms - watering of eyes, eye[slideshare.net]
  • Epidemiology of amebiasis in a region of high incidence of amebic liver abscess in central Vietnam. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002 May. 66(5):578-83. [Medline]. Bowley DM, Loveland J, Omar T, Pitcher GJ.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • General Pathology and Pathophysiology Acanthamoeba is ubiquitous.[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • Pathophysiology E histolytica is a pseudopod-forming, nonflagellated protozoal parasite that causes proteolysis and tissue lysis (hence the species name) and can induce host-cell apoptosis (see the image below).[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • It provides a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of opportunistic infections and presents strategies for infection prevention and control.[books.google.com]
  • Preventing food and water from being contaminated with human feces is key to preventing amebiasis. Improving sanitation systems in areas where the infection is common can help.[msdmanuals.com]
  • Infection and Prevention The new hosts are usually infected by drinking water contaminated with the feces of people shedding Entamoeba histolytica cysts.[study.com]
  • Primary prevention Since treatment is toxic, lengthy, and not necessarily effective, prevention is essential. Contact lens wearers should be taught how to clean their contact lenses properly.[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • Practice safer sex, including using condoms for anal contact and dental dams for oral contact to help prevent infection. Diagnosis Patient history and physical examination are needed.[healthcommunities.com]

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