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Amphetamine

Amfetamine


Presentation

  • We present a fatal case of ischaemic colitis induced by amphetamine use in a 44-year-old woman who presented in extremis after a cardiac arrest en route to the emergency department.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Majority of patients with ATSAC were found to be male, young and presented late with severe dilated cardiomyopathy. Female ATS users predominantly develop Takotsubo type of ATSAC and in particular its atypical basal variant.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Embedded finger-ring injury is not usually encountered in clinical practice, and most patients present with psychiatric or physical/mental impairment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The specimen donor claimed that she had taken Gewolen (a nonprescription drug manufactured in Taiwan) for treating abdominal pain and the medication was presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To describe the rare case of a patient presenting with rhabdomyolysis accompanied by spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma (SDH) and subarachnoid hematoma (SAH), presumably caused by amphetamine abuse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hypoxemia
  • It is defined by the clinical triad of hemoptysis, anemia and progressive hypoxemia. Chest radiographs reveal non-specific patchy or diffuse bilateral pulmonary consolidation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Respiratory Distress
  • Here, we report a case of an amphetamine abuser who developed acute EP and acute respiratory distress syndrome after amphetamine inhalation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hemoptysis
  • It is defined by the clinical triad of hemoptysis, anemia and progressive hypoxemia. Chest radiographs reveal non-specific patchy or diffuse bilateral pulmonary consolidation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Nausea
  • The most common adverse events reported ( 5% of participants) were dry mouth, palpitations, nausea, dizziness, headache, anxiety, and nasal congestion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Be sure your doctor knows if you also take opioid medicine, herbal products, or medicine for depression, mental illness, Parkinson's disease, migraine headaches, serious infections, or prevention of nausea and vomiting.[drugs.com]
  • Side Effects Nausea , stomach upset, diarrhea , dry mouth , headache , nervousness, dizziness , trouble sleeping , loss of appetite, weight loss , irritability, or restlessness may occur.[webmd.com]
  • Side Effects Nausea, stomach upset, diarrhea, dry mouth, headache, nervousness, dizziness, trouble sleeping, loss of appetite, weight loss, irritability, or restlessness may occur.[webmd.com]
  • […] weight loss • stomach pain • nausea • trouble sleeping • restlessness • extreme mood changes • dizziness • increased heart rate Talk to your doctor if you or your child have any side effects that bother you or do not go away.[dyanavelxr.com]
Poor Oral Hygiene
  • The causes include decreased salivation, corrosive substances in the smoke, and poor oral hygiene—called "meth mouth." When an amphetamine is suddenly stopped, symptoms vary.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Users have a high rate of severe tooth decay affecting multiple teeth; causes include decreased salivation, acidic combustion products, and poor oral hygiene.[merckmanuals.com]
Dysgeusia
  • Delayed / 0-6.0 fever / Early / 0-5.0 infection / Delayed / 0-5.0 dysmenorrhea / Delayed / 0-4.0 libido decrease / Delayed / 0-4.0 photosensitivity / Delayed / 0-4.0 hyperhidrosis / Delayed / 0-4.0 dental caries / Delayed / 0-4.0 dyspepsia / Early / 0-2.0 dysgeusia[pdr.net]
Hearing Problem
  • There are no reports of hearing problems with amphetamines. Hearing loss was identified in seven amphetamine-dependent inpatients in the detox unit at Al Amal Hospital, Jeddah.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Arthritis
  • Amphetamine Assay inspired by a case report of a self-ingestion of chloroquine after a family dispute, that involved the following: (1) an in vitro study with control samples of healthy subjects, (2) an in vivo study with samples of patients with rheumatoid arthritis[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Computerized definitions showed high positive predictive values for identifying hospitalizations for congestive heart failure and selected infections in Medicaid enrollees with rheumatoid arthritis.[doi.org]
  • Neuropharmacology 84:111–122 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Jones AK, Cunningham VJ, Ha-Kawa S, Fujiwara T, Luthra SK, Silva S, Derbyshire S, Jones T (1994) Changes in central opioid receptor binding in relation to inflammation and pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis[doi.org]
Euphoric Mood
  • The efficacy ratios for d -amphetamine: l -amphetamine on increasing euphoric mood in man were similar to the previously reported ratios of these two isomers in inducing or exacerbating psychosis in humans.[doi.org]
Depersonalization
  • Symptoms of dissociation, including dissociative amnesia, depersonalization, and derealization, commonly develop in individuals subject to chronic and repeated trauma during development.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hyperactivity
  • Amphetamine-derived medications are being prescribed with increasing frequency to younger pediatric patients to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The drug resolved both the inattention/hyperactivity symptoms as well as the amphetamine abuse. Modafinil may be a suitable candidate treatment for adults with ADHD and stimulant abuse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Plasma levels of d-amphetamine in hyperactive children. Psychopharmacology, 62, 133 - 140. Google Scholar Crossref Medline ISI Connor, D.F., & Steingard, R.J. ( 2004 ). New formulations of stimulants for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.[doi.org]
  • Google Scholar Russell, VA, Sagvolden, T, Johansen, EB ( 2005 ) Animal models of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behav Brain Funct 1: 9.[doi.org]
Headache
  • A short history of headache, abdominal pain, vomiting and agitation preceded her admission. Imaging revealed changes consistent with ischaemic colitis. Emergency laparotomy revealed widespread colonic necrosis necessitating a subtotal colectomy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Past medical history was positive for mild hypertension and migraine headaches. He underwent a complete autopsy and drug screen.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The most common adverse events reported ( 5% of participants) were dry mouth, palpitations, nausea, dizziness, headache, anxiety, and nasal congestion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Common features reported include tachycardia, hypertension, chest pain, various cardiac dysrhythmias, vasculitis, headache, cerebral hemorrhage, hyperthermia, tachypnea, and violent and aggressive behaviour. Management.[doi.org]
  • Side Effects Nausea , stomach upset, diarrhea , dry mouth , headache , nervousness, dizziness , trouble sleeping , loss of appetite, weight loss , irritability, or restlessness may occur.[webmd.com]
Insomnia
  • He had also been using fenofibrate 267 mg/day for 3 years for hyperlipidemia and trazodone 100 mg/day for 5 months for insomnia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Amphetamines were associated with a higher proportion of participants experiencing decreased appetite (RR 6.31; 95% CI 2.58 to 15.46; 11 studies; 2467 children/adolescents), insomnia (RR 3.80; 95% CI 2.12 to 6.83; 10 studies; 2429 children/adolescents[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This effect may be clinically important if a patient is receiving an antihistamine agent for treatment of insomnia.[pdr.net]
  • Similar to cocaine, but slower onset and longer duration Increased body temperature, blood pressure and pulse rates, insomnia, loss of appetite, physical exhaustion Chronic abuse produces a psychosis that resembles schizophrenia: paranoia, hallucinations[dea.gov]
  • Short-term effects of amphetamine use include: Increased heart rate Increased blood pressure Reduced appetite Dilation of the pupils Feelings of happiness and power Reduced fatigue Long term use of amphetamines can result in: Insomnia, restlessness "Paranoid[faculty.washington.edu]
Akinesia
  • One of the rarest is the reverse type of this syndrome, with hyperdynamic apex and complete akinesia of the base (as opposed to the classic apical ballooning).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • A component of the workup for new-onset hypertension in pregnancy often includes a urine drug screen. A labetalol metabolite is structurally similar to amphetamine and methamphetamine, thus causing potential cross-reactivity in drug immunoassays.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Basic information about the biosample assayed, internal standard, workup, GC or LC column and mobile phase, detection mode, and validation data for each procedure is summarized in two tables to facilitate the selection of a method suitable for a specific[doi.org]
Fibrinoid Necrosis
  • Surgery revealed fibrosis and fibrinoid necrosis around the aneurysm. The aneurysm was successfully embolized with Guglielmi detachable coil. A rapidly growing aneurysm in the major intracranial vessels resulting from amphetamine abuse is very rare.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Normal Electrocardiogram
  • The patient presented to the emergency department with sudden onset of central chest pain and a normal electrocardiogram. Cardiac enzymes were consistent with acute myocardial infarction. Drug screening was positive for amphetamines.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Fluoxetine may decrease craving in short-term treatment. Imipramine may increase duration of adherence to treatment in medium-term treatment. Apart from these, no other benefits can be found.[web.archive.org]
  • Such dual diagnosis patients have been shown to have poorer treatment outcomes. Often, they do not comply with treatment plans and have frequent episodes of hospitalization.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • treatment did not reduce amphetamine use.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ) was superior to placebo on PERMP total score, with treatment differences observed from 4 to 16 hours postdose; nominal treatment differences on the ADHD-SRS, but not the Co-ADHD-RS TSRS, were also observed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • For the studies in which the treatment and/or controlled groups were divided into subgroups because of the differences of concurrent treatment, the continuous data of the subgroups receiving more rigorous treatment, e.g., higher doses of drug treatment[doi.org]

Prognosis

  • Multiple conditions are associated with DAH, of which Wegener's granulomatosis is the most frequent, and underlying disease determines the prognosis and treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] into cardiotoxic effects of this substance are being presented in the literature and remarkably ATS Associated Cardiomyopathy (ATSAC) is emerging as a novel cardiovascular condition with its distinctive pathogenesis, risk factors, clinical features and prognosis[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • 9.1.1 Ingestion 9.1.2 Inhalation 9.1.3 Skin exposure 9.1.4 Eye contact 9.1.5 Parenteral exposure 9.1.6 Other 9.2 Chronic poisoning 9.2.1 Ingestion 9.2.2 Inhalation 9.2.3 Skin exposure 9.2.4 Eye contact 9.2.5 Parenteral exposure 9.2.6 Other 9.3 Course, prognosis[inchem.org]
  • Since acute and chronic amphetamine psychoses may be different from each other in the respects of pathophysiology, clinical features, response to treatment, course of illness, and prognosis.[doi.org]

Etiology

  • We report on two patients who severely and repeatedly mutilated their own genitalia while intoxicated on amphetamines and consider possible diagnostic etiologies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Amphetamine is indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) as well as for the treatment of central nervous system disorders such as narcolepsy. 1 ADHD is a complex disorder associated with the substantial heterogeneity in etiology[drugbank.ca]

Epidemiology

  • Three researchers independently reviewed studies (Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses). Validity and bias were appraised.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology. Following its use in the Second World War, metamfetamine gained popularity as an illicit drug in Japan and later the United States.[doi.org]
  • The findings highlight the need for high quality epidemiological studies and closer monitoring of stimulant use in different populations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In paticular, the epidemiologic topics of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) called the rivival of LSD was described.[ci.nii.ac.jp]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • BACKGROUND: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is a candidate neuropeptide as a biomarker for major depressive disorder (MDD) because of its effects on emotion and distribution covering brain areas involved in the pathophysiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It goes on to discuss briefly the significance of the receptor, agents acting upon it, its distribution, and currently hypothesized physiological and pathophysiological roles.[doi.org]
  • Since acute and chronic amphetamine psychoses may be different from each other in the respects of pathophysiology, clinical features, response to treatment, course of illness, and prognosis.[doi.org]
  • Part 1: pathophysiology and mechanisms of induction. Can J Psychiatry. 2005; 50 :541–547. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 93. Isaac G, Fredriksson A, Danielsson R, Eriksson P, Bergquist J.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pathophysiology of acute amphetamine poisoning with pathologic correlation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1967 ; 158: 115 - 27 ; PMID: 6054070 Zalis EG, Parmley LF, Jr. Fatal Amphetamine Poisoning.[doi.org]

Prevention

  • A successful continuum of care (CoC) is key to effective clinical care and prevention. This study aimed to describe the HIV CoC in HIV-positive FESW.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention and treatment strategies should focus on the protective effect of higher education levels and should target polydrug use.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Thereafter, we set to investigate if later potentiation of α5GABA A Rs in offspring's preadolescence (from postnatal day 22-28) could prevent the deficit in locomotor reactivity to amphetamine observed in adulthood, at postnatal day P60.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Description: Amphetamine is designed to prevent three things, (all are individually optional): Screen Saver Sleep Mode System Shutdown/Restart While there are apps out there that prevent the screen saver and sleep modes, when this app was originally written[foolishit.com]
  • Especially the knowledge of potential origins of methamphetamine and amphetamine turns out to be very important to prevent a misinterpretation of the surrounding circumstances and to prove illegal drug abuse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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