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Anal Cancer


Presentation

  • A review of medical records was performed to assess the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment. Anal carcinoma can metastasize to the iris.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the present article we review this uncommon complication, discuss the technical surgical aspects associated with a very large perianal tissue removal, and data of the most recent literature in this field.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The patient died 2 months after the initial presentation with perianal skin metastasis. Copyright 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The authors present the case of a 63-year-old female with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal who presented with a solitary dural-based enhancing lesion of the right parietal area.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We describe the surgical approach presenting our technique to avoid postoperative complications and preserve the sexual reassignment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Rigor
  • By design, this study did not meet the rigors of a prospective randomized trial.[jamanetwork.com]
Constipation
  • These are some common symptoms of anal cancer: Bleeding from the rectum or anus A lump or mass at the anus Pain in the anal area Persistent or recurrent itching Constipation or diarrhea Discharge (mucus or pus) from the anus Stools that are narrower than[rush.edu]
  • , bumps, or a growth located near the anus Anal bleeding or bleeding during bowel movements Anal discharge Pain in or around the anus or a feeling of fullness in the anal area Itchy sensation around or inside the anus Change in bowel habits, such as constipation[verywellhealth.com]
  • Side effects may include: diarrhea or constipation soreness and blistering around the target area, which is the anus a higher susceptibility to infections during treatment fatigue loss of appetite nausea or vomiting mouth ulcers or sore mouth loss of[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Other symptoms include: Small lumps seen or felt around the anus which could be confused with piles An increase in the number or size of piles Pain in the anal area – affects about 30% of people Difficulty in passing stools and extreme constipation are[bowelcanceruk.org.uk]
Fecal Incontinence
  • Some patients have fecal incontinence after combined chemotherapy and radiation. Biopsies to document disease regression after chemotherapy and radiation were commonly advised, but are not as frequent any longer.[en.wikipedia.org]

Workup

  • Adding a PET-CT scan to the staging workup improves the selection of patients who need higher dose radiation therapy to the groin by identifying nodes that would be included in the radiation field.[cancertherapyadvisor.com]
  • Diagnostic Workup Computerized tomography scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis help define the internal extension of the infiltrating tumors, as well as enlargement of the pelvic nodes and distant metastasis.[web.archive.org]

Treatment

  • Doctors want to learn whether the new treatment is safe, effective, and possibly better than the standard treatment. Clinical trials can test a new drug, a new combination of standard treatments, or new doses of standard drugs or other treatments.[cancer.net]
  • Medical Therapy Our medical oncologist s are board certified and work with your entire treatment team to provide medication as one of your treatment options.[ohsu.edu]
  • Understanding Their Role in Cancer Treatment: Current and Future Perspectives Managing Sensory Disruptions During Cancer Treatments For Health Care Professionals: Care Coordination for Older Men Living with Cancer Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment[cancercare.org]
  • The MDT provide support, advice and help you decide the best treatment plan if cancer is discovered. How long before treatment starts? Treatment starts as soon as possible after the cancer has been discovered.[rlbuht.nhs.uk]
  • Side effects of radiation treatment include problems that occur as a result of the treatment itself as well as from radiation damage to healthy cells in the treatment area.[radiologyinfo.org]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Anal cancer of the dentate line : The 5-year survival rate after radiochemotherapy is approx. 80% . Anal cancer of the anal verge : The prognosis is favorable if complete local excision is possible.[amboss.com]
  • Radiotherapy allows a good local control of tumour but the prognosis depends on systemic disease which is generally bad.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis of Anal Cancer (Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus) Anal cancer prognosis depends upon the size of the anal tumour, where the anal tumour is and whether it has spread to the lymph nodes.[myvmc.com]
  • Prognosis Anal cancer prognosis depends upon how early the cancer is diagnosed and the size of the tumor. If diagnosed and treated early, the prognosis is good for patients with anal cancer .[baptisthealth.com]
  • Prognosis for anal cancer It is not possible for a doctor to predict the exact course of a disease, as it will depend on each person's individual circumstances.[cancer.org.au]

Etiology

  • Etiology Risk factors Immunodeficiency (e.g., HIV ) Receptive anal intercourse Smoking HPV infection (esp. types 16 and 18) References: [2] Classification TNM Classification for Anal Cancer UICC (Union for International Cancer Control) staging of anal[amboss.com]
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is well known as the major etiological agent for ano-genital cancer. In contrast to cervical cancer, anal cancer is uncommon, but is increasing steadily in the community over the last few decades.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PubMed Google Scholar Frisch M: On the etiology of anal squamous carcinoma. Dan Med Bull. 2002, 49: 194-209. PubMed Google Scholar Palefsky JM, Rubin M: The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus and related neoplasia.[dx.doi.org]
  • "On the etiology of anal squamous carcinoma". Danish Medical Bulletin . 49 (3): 194–209. PMID 12238281 . Frisch M, Glimelius B, van den Brule AJ, et al. (November 1997). "Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer". N. Engl. J.[en.wikipedia.org]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology References: [1] [2] Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.[amboss.com]
  • Frisch at the Department of Epidemiology Research, Danish Epidemiology Science Center, Statens Serum Institut, 2300-Copenhagen S, Denmark. References (34) 1. Goldman S, Glimelius B, Nilsson B, Pahlman L.[doi.org]
  • This ESMO-ESSO-ESTRO Guideline gives information on the incidence and epidemiology, diagnosis, screening, pathology and molecular biology of the disease as well as current treatment options and follow-up. Download the PDF from Annals of Oncology[esmo.org]
  • Using data from National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program from 1973 through 2007, 189,206 cases with either in situ or invasive cervical, vulvar, or vaginal neoplasm were followed for 138,553,519 person-years for the[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology The majority ( 80%) of anal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas , which arise from below the dentate line (pectinate line).[teachmesurgery.com]
  • A further complication is that pathophysiologically, cancer of the anal margin (perianal skin) may be more closely related to penile and vulvar cancers than to cervical cancer, and the former are much less well studied than the latter. [10] In current[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Pathophysiology 1. HPV infection is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted disease in the United States and provides at least part of the link between sexual activity and anal cancer.[cancertherapyadvisor.com]
  • Marc Steben and Eliane Duarte-Franco , Human papillomavirus infection: Epidemiology and pathophysiology , Gynecologic Oncology , 107 , 2 , (S2) , (2007) .[dx.doi.org]

Prevention

  • Jeffrey Klausner, director of STD prevention at the San Francisco Department of Public Health. Dr.[nytimes.com]
  • The vaccine can be used to prevent cervical cancer, of course, but also is effective against HPV-related cancers of the vagina, vulva, and anus. (The vaccine can also prevent low-risk lesions like genital warts in either gender.)[ashasexualhealth.org]
  • The objective of screening is to identify and treat these precancers to prevent occurrence of anal cancer.[thebodypro.com]
  • Screening HIV-infected patients for squamous cell cancer of the anus and human papillomavirus-related anal dysplasia may prevent excess morbidity and mortality.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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