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Anaplasma Phagocytophilum


Presentation

  • Chinese anaplasmosis patients usually present with serious manifestations, and the fatality rate is as high as 26.5%.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Finally, our multiplex assay can detect all three tick-borne pathogens in a sensitive and specific manner irrespective of the level of each pathogen present in the sample.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A. phagocytophilum-specific antibodies were found in 72% of sera and A. phagocytophilum DNA was present in 6.2% of spleens.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In ticks, numerous ankA and msp4 variants were present. Copyright 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 61-year-old woman presented with a 6-day history of fever, headache, and myalgia. Initial investigation showed neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. We diagnosed human granulocytic anaplasmosis by microscopic examination and serologic testing.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Cytopenia
  • […] erythema migrans (EM) from this region, who have leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia (typical findings in HGA and in the initial phase of TBE but not in patients with LB) are coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or with TBE virus, i.e. that cytopenia[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Enlargement of the Spleen
  • A. phagocytophilum lacking lpda1 revealed enlargement of the spleen, increased splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis, and altered clinicopathological abnormalities during mammalian colonization.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Babesia Microti
  • KEYWORDS: Anaplasma phagocytophilum; Babesia microti; Borrelia burgdorferi; Ixodes scapularis; Lyme disease[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The BLAST analysis of the 18S rDNA sequence obtained with the Babesia spp. specific primers indicated that the patient was infected with Babesia microti.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The aim of the study was to elucidate the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti co-infection in Ixodes ricinus populations within the central-eastern region of Poland.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • microti (causative agent of human babesiosis).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Rodents are the reservoir host for many tick-transmitted pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti, which can cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis and babesiosis, respectively.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chlamydia Trachomatis
  • Shigella flexneri, Listeria monocytogenes, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum express effector proteins that modify host histones and chromatin structure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Listeria Monocytogenes
  • Shigella flexneri, Listeria monocytogenes, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum express effector proteins that modify host histones and chromatin structure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dirofilaria Immitis
  • Relatively high prevalence rates were documented for anti-Babesia canis antibodies, Dirofilaria immitis antigen (16.2 %; 27/167 each), anti-Ehrlichia canis (21 %; 35/167) and anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies (30.5 - 46.1 %; 51 - 77/167), while[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Treatment responses were reported for 14 cats, and the clinical abnormalities in these cats resolved when doxycycline was administered.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The patient was treated with oral doxycycline, and, after 14 days of treatment, the hearing loss had improved markedly. Therefore, we concluded that the patient's acute transient bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was associated with anaplasmosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The higher infection rate of the patient's mature versus immature granulocytes before treatment and the minimal level of infection of the patient's bone marrow support this.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • As seen in this case, nonspecific symptomatology of variable onset can impede diagnosis and treatment. This may increase risk of poor outcomes in maternal HGA patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Moreover, preincubating host cells with GST-tagged forms of both Asp14 and outer membrane protein A, another A. phagocytophilum invasin, pronouncedly reduced infection relative to treatment with either protein alone.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • Abstract The obligate intracellular bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the etiological agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), an acute febrile tick-borne disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Thus, characterizing A. phagocytophilum genes that affect the inflammatory process is critical for understanding disease etiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The etiological agents responsible for Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), human granulocytic anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), and babesiosis (Babesia microti) are primarily transmitted by the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These findings may have significant clinical implications for understanding the etiology of Anaplasma infection and for therapeutic studies. Copyright 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • "Experimentally induced infections of dogs, cats and nonhuman primates with Ehrlichia equi, etiologic agent of equine ehrlichiosis." Am. J. Vet. Res. (1975) 36:85-88.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • A. phagocytophilum epidemiological cycles are complex and involve different ecotypes, vectors, and mammalian host species. Moreover, the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum infection differs greatly between Europe and the USA.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, while several molecular typing tools have been developed over the last years, few of them are appropriate for in-depth exploration of the epidemiological cycle of this bacterium.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis, CA, USA.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This report describes the patient's clinical history and the epidemiologic and laboratory investigations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the present review, we focus on the ecology and epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum, especially the role of wildlife in contribution to the spread and sustainability of the infection in domestic livestock and humans.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test Human granulocyte ehrlichiosis (HGE) is a zoonotic infection caused by a rickettsia-like agent.[mayomedicallaboratories.com]

Prevention

  • We report 2 additional cases of transfusion-transmitted A phagocytophilum in which leukocyte reduction of all transfused units failed to prevent microbial transmission.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In Poland the problem of tick-borne diseases is a growing issue, therefore people residing in southern Polish touristic areas should be informed about the prevention and protection against ticks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Later, she visited the Bayannur Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Hospital in Inner Mongolia, China.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Department of Rickettsiology, National Institute of Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, Beijing, People's Republic of China.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This is the 11th reported case of HGA in pregnancy and is at least the sixth known case in which leukoreduction did not prevent TAHGA. As seen in this case, nonspecific symptomatology of variable onset can impede diagnosis and treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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