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Anaplastic Astrocytoma


Presentation

  • Due to variety of clinical presentations, diagnosis of AA can be challenging.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Endomorph
  • The oncocyte, which was growing endomorphically, revealed a short-cell projection, suggesting a tendency to penetrate blood vessels.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Intravenous Administration
  • After histologic confirmation of the recurrent tumor, he was treated with intravenous administration of human natural tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Vortex Keratopathy
  • Inhibition of EGFR, which is involved with corneal epithelial cell migration and wound healing, may play a role in the pathogenesis underlying corneal vortex keratopathy and ocular surface conditions with significant epithelial turnover.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pierre Robin Syndrome
  • A 44-year-old male with Pierre Robin syndrome and funnel chest was diagnosed with a tumor of the cerebellar vermis and spontaneous pneumothorax.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Headache
  • A 14-year-old, Caucasian male with Ollier Disease presented with a history of headaches, vomiting, blurred vision, and unsteady gait.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Intracranial Hemorrhage
  • Although primary and metastatic brain tumors can cause intracranial hemorrhage, thalamic hemorrhage as the first presentation of an anaplastic astrocytoma has not been reported.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Investigations For patients who present with neurological deficits, a CT of the head needs to be ordered to assess for brain masses, evidence of a stroke, or new intracranial hemorrhage.[cureus.com]
Tonic-Clonic Seizure
  • The subsequent follow-up period of 27 months was uneventful until he developed a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. MRI showed tumor recurrence in the original site of the tumor. Re-exploration was carried out.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Neglect
  • Assessment of dysphasias in patients undergoing intensive therapy for brain neoplasms is often neglected, but it can provide good objective information about the efficacy of therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dysphasia
  • Assessment of dysphasias in patients undergoing intensive therapy for brain neoplasms is often neglected, but it can provide good objective information about the efficacy of therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • The patient had a 30 pack-year smoking history and underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage as part of his workup. Lavage fluid stained positive for Cryptococcus.[cureus.com]
  • […] tumors Other studies EEG may be used to evaluate and monitor epileptiform activity ECG and chest radiographs are indicated to evaluate operative risk CSF studies may be used to rule out other diagnoses (eg, metastasis, lymphoma, medulloblastoma) See Workup[emedicine.com]

Treatment

  • Bevacizumab treatment may be a salvage treatment option for patients with diffusely infiltrating cerebellar gliomas that exhibits rapid progression during standard treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The standard initial treatment is to remove as much of the tumor as possible without worsening neurologic deficits. Radiation therapy has been shown to prolong survival and is a standard component of treatment.[en.wikipedia.org]

Prognosis

  • AA with IDH mutation and no 1p/19q co-deletion have intermediate prognosis and AA with wild-type IDH have the worst prognosis and share many molecular alterations with glioblastoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is important to note that prognosis across age groups is different especially during the first three years post-diagnosis.[en.wikipedia.org]

Etiology

  • Extensive electrophysiological and radiological examination revealed a neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology. Finally, the patient's condition improved receiving levodopa.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A CT scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis can also help evaluate for signs of infection in the case of an infectious etiology leading to brain lesions.[cureus.com]
  • […] monitoring cancer patient survival, Cancer, 1996 , vol. 78 9 (pg. 2004 - 2010 ) 15 Relative survival of childhood and adult medulloblastomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), Cancer, 2012 , vol. 118 5 (pg. 1313 - 1322 ) 16 Epidemiology and etiology[dx.doi.org]
  • The following clinicopathological entities can be distinguished : Pilocytic Astrocytomas (Grade I) Fibrillary Astrocytomas (Grade II) Anaplastic Astrocytomas (Grade III) Glioblastoma Multiforme (Grade IV) Etiology gliomas have been observed following[atlasgeneticsoncology.org]

Epidemiology

  • METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database, we identified 2755 patients with AA and patients with 21,962 glioblastoma between 1999 and 2010.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology Mean age 45 years; male predominance Sites Usually supratentorial but can be anywhere in CNS; preferred sites are frontal and temporal lobes, brain stem, spinal cord; uncommon in cerebellum Radiology description Neuroimaging: usually heterogeneous[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Materials and Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database was used to identify patients with an AA (code 9401/3).[dx.doi.org]
  • Discussion Epidemiology Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) is a WHO Grade III brain glioma. The annual incidence is 0.44 per 100,000 [1] . Clinical features Symptoms are caused by local brain invasion and increased intracranial pressure.[cureus.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The online database was searched for English-language articles reporting cases of HFS due to brainstem mass lesions and the possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in its genesis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiology Regional effects of astrocytomas include compression, invasion, and destruction of brain parenchyma.[emedicine.com]
  • Astrocytomas in the base of the brain are more common in young people and account for roughly 75% of neuroepithelial tumors. [ citation needed ] Pathophysiology [ edit ] Astrocytoma causes regional effects by compression, invasion, and destruction of[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • The cause and the prevention of implantation metastasis along the stereotactic biopsy tract are also discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Solove Research Institute strives to create a cancer-free world by integrating scientific research with excellence in education and patient-centered care, a strategy that leads to better methods of prevention, detection and treatment.[cancer.osu.edu]
  • Imbalances Change in Consciousness, Thought Process, Behaviour and Orientation Problems Seizures Causes Most cases of anaplastic astrocytoma do not have definite causes, meaning the disease happens sporadically and there is not much that can be done to prevent[cancerwall.com]
  • Being able to anticipate these side effects can help the care team, parents, and child prepare, and, in some cases, prevent these symptoms from occurring, if possible.[web.archive.org]

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