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Aniline Poisoning

Poisoning by Aniline


Presentation

  • A comprehensive textbook of adult emergency medicine for trainee doctors - covers all the problems likely to present to a trainee in the emergency department.[books.google.com]
  • The author then presents an overview of environmental chemistry so that you can understand the remainder of the material covered within that framework.[books.google.com]
  • Next steps may include: decontamination of the gastrointestinal tract or further irrigation of eyes or skin; stabilization of the airway, breathing, and circulation; and treatment of seizures, if present.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Arsenic poisoning’ is distinguished from ‘Cholera’ by: A Voice change B Pain in throat after vomiting C Tenesmus & anal irritation present D Burning sensation preceding vomiting 16. C) Tenesmus & anal irritation present 17. 6.[slideshare.net]
Anemia
  • : Hemolytic anemia after aniline and aniline-related drugs such as dapsone and primaquine is thought to be mediated by active/reactive metabolite formed during the hepatic clearance of the parent compounds.[flipper.diff.org]
  • Dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia. Clin Pharm 1992; 11: 800-5. Dawson AH, Whyte IM. Management of dapsone poisoning complicated by methaemoglobinemia. Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp 1989; 4: 387-92.[drugs.com]
  • For chronic poisoning aniline characterized by headaches, deterioration of sleep, lethargy, fatigue, palpitations , sievetest skin, often with yellowish shade, toxic hepatitis , anemia . Carcinogenic effect aniline is not. First aid and treatment .[medicalency.com]
  • Google Scholar Lee MJ, Park KN: A case of acute dapsone poisoning complicated with methyelene blue-induced hemolytic anemia. J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol 2006, 4 (2):170–174.[aoemj.biomedcentral.com]
  • "Historically, most work-related episodes of methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia have been due to exposure to aromatic nitro and amino compounds.[haz-map.com]
Fatigue
  • […] or inhalation of styrene released from disposed packaging materials, cigarette smoke, automobile emissions, or manufacturing of automobile parts, fiberglass, plastic pipes, and insulation for wiring and appliances Effects (mainly due to inhalation) Fatigue[amboss.com]
  • In case of poisoning A. in the lungs cases, there are complaints of weakness, fatigue, dizziness, headache; blueness of the lips, ears, nail phalanxes; in the blood metgemoglobin killed Ganza.[medicalency.com]
  • However it is very dangerous to avoid drinking, despite the possible vomiting.At any sign of dehydration (fatigue, dizziness) you should seek medical care.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Symptoms of hypoxia such as dyspnea, fatigue and headache appear when the concentration reaches 20 to 45%. "Administration of methylene blue is indicated in symptomatic patients with methemoglobin levels greater than 30%."[haz-map.com]
Hypotension
  • Acute exposure to skin, airways or gastrointestinal tract may cause cyanosis, methaemoglobinaemia, headache, shallow respiration, dizziness, confusion, stupor, hypotension, lethargy, convulsions and coma, jaundice, pain on urination, haemolysis and anaemia[ihcworld.com]
  • […] on auscultation - Herald the onset of pulmonary edema Cyanosis - Late finding Thin, frothy white/yellow secretions Wheezing Tachypnea Stridor Accessory muscle use for respiratory effort Cardiovascular findings may include the following: Tachycardia Hypotension[emedicine.medscape.com]
Hyperkeratosis
  • Chronic manifestations include weakness, peripheral neuropathy, hyperkeratosis, skin rashes, and oral manifestations secondary to liver dysfunction and bone marrow depression.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Psychiatric Symptoms
  • Hallucinations or other psychiatric symptoms may indicate poisoning by a hallucinogenic plant. Evidence of an empty container or information from the victim are helpful in determining exactly what substance has caused the poisoning.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Headache
  • […] coal-tar benzol cold curing compounding room containing crimson antimony cyanosis described dipping room disease dizziness employed exhaust exposed exposure floor footwear gastric juice German girls gloves golden antimony golden sulphide grain handle headache[books.google.com]
  • Severity of symptoms can range from headache and nausea to convulsions and death.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • […] clinical Treatment : supportive Methyl n-butyl ketone Synonyms : 2-Hexanone ; propyl acetone Sources of exposure : ingestion, skin contact, or inhalation of methyl n-butyl ketone , which is found in detergents , solvents, and paint thinners Effects Headache[amboss.com]
  • This enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of prostoglandins , which are involved in the dilation of blood vessels that causes the pain experienced in a headache.[ch.ic.ac.uk]
  • In acute poisoning aniline in mild cases, victims complain of weakness, dizziness , headache pain ; marked blueness of the lips , ears, nail phalanxes; in the blood metgemoglobin killed Ganza.[medicalency.com]
Dizziness
  • […] acute Akron aniline fumes aniline oil aniline poisoning benzine poisoning buffing carbon disulphide carbon tetrachloride chloroform chronic coal-tar benzol cold curing compounding room containing crimson antimony cyanosis described dipping room disease dizziness[books.google.com]
  • : supportive Methyl n-butyl ketone Synonyms : 2-Hexanone ; propyl acetone Sources of exposure : ingestion, skin contact, or inhalation of methyl n-butyl ketone , which is found in detergents , solvents, and paint thinners Effects Headache , nausea, dizziness[amboss.com]
  • In acute poisoning aniline in mild cases, victims complain of weakness, dizziness , headache pain ; marked blueness of the lips , ears, nail phalanxes; in the blood metgemoglobin killed Ganza.[medicalency.com]
  • Acute exposure to skin, airways or gastrointestinal tract may cause cyanosis, methaemoglobinaemia, headache, shallow respiration, dizziness, confusion, stupor, hypotension, lethargy, convulsions and coma, jaundice, pain on urination, haemolysis and anaemia[ihcworld.com]
  • Prolonged exposure to the vapour or slight skin exposure over a period of time affects the nervous system and the blood, causing tiredness, loss of appetite, headache, and dizziness.[toxipedia.org]
Confusion
  • Drug overdoses cause a range of symptoms, including excitability, sleepiness, confusion, unconsciousness, rapid heartbeat, convulsions, nausea, and changes in blood pressure.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Acute exposure to skin, airways or gastrointestinal tract may cause cyanosis, methaemoglobinaemia, headache, shallow respiration, dizziness, confusion, stupor, hypotension, lethargy, convulsions and coma, jaundice, pain on urination, haemolysis and anaemia[ihcworld.com]
  • It causes headache, drowsiness, cyanosis, and mental confusion, and, in severe cases, can cause convulsions.[toxipedia.org]
  • […] amounts of aniline for short periods of time decreases the ability of blood to carry oxygen .Lack of oxygen causes effects ranging from severe headache, nausea, sometimes vomiting, to dryness of throat and loss of appetite Central nervous symptoms: confusion[flipper.diff.org]
  • […] basis of their potential clinical significance (possible signs and symptoms in parentheses where appropriate)—not necessarily inclusive: Abdominal pain {05} {07} {08} {18} {29} anxiety {05} {06} {10} {20} chest pain {03} {05} {06} {07} {08} {18} {20} confusion[drugs.com]
Vertigo
  • These cases have been characterized by marked cyanosis, sometimes accompanied by vertigo and weakness, digestive disorders, headache and somnolence.[jamanetwork.com]
  • […] eye contact, and ingestion of disinfectants , tobacco smoke, or embalming fluid (an aqueous solution stabilized with methanol ; formalin ) Effects Irritation of the skin ( contact dermatitis ), mucous membranes, eyes, and respiratory tract Headache , vertigo[amboss.com]
  • […] for short periods of time decreases the ability of blood to carry oxygen .Lack of oxygen causes effects ranging from severe headache, nausea, sometimes vomiting, to dryness of throat and loss of appetite Central nervous symptoms: confusion, ataxia, vertigo[flipper.diff.org]
  • The symptoms of methemoglobinemia differ depending on the concentration level of MetHb in the blood, with 0–20% potentially producing cyanoderma; 20–40% potentially producing headache, anxiety, vertigo, and a frequent pulse; 40–60% potentially producing[aoemj.biomedcentral.com]
Stupor
  • Acute exposure to skin, airways or gastrointestinal tract may cause cyanosis, methaemoglobinaemia, headache, shallow respiration, dizziness, confusion, stupor, hypotension, lethargy, convulsions and coma, jaundice, pain on urination, haemolysis and anaemia[ihcworld.com]
  • Continued exposure may lead to difficult breathing, dizziness, stupor, unconsciousness, convulsions may occur but appear to be uncommon. Cardiac effects: heart blocks, arrhythmias, and shock.[flipper.diff.org]

Workup

  • If cardiogenic pulmonary edema is strongly suspected Findings on chest radiography are as follows: Initial films may be normal Early changes include hyperinflation and hilar enlargement Later changes are typical for noncardiogenic pulmonary edema See Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]
Heinz Bodies
  • It is known that ascorbic acid promotes the rate of hydroxylation of aniline to p -aminophenol 2 , which is a potent agent in the production of Heinz bodies not only in vivo but also in vitro 3 , and ascorbic acid is able to produce Heinz bodies in vitro[nature.com]

Treatment

  • Important factors in treatment are discussed. These include, gastric lavage, the administration of methylene blue and exchange transfusion. The possibility of a late haemolytic reaction being a complication of methylene blue treatment is mentioned.[unboundmedicine.com]
  • Treatment Treatment for poisoning depends on the poison swallowed or inhaled. Contacting the poison control center or hospital emergency room is the first step in getting proper treatment.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Also has boxes featuring controversial areas of treatment. Practical and clinically orientated. Major changes to resuscitation guidelines. Complete rewriting of ENT section.[books.google.com]
  • We have found that in rats poisoned with aniline the formation of Heinz bodies is promoted by treatment with ascorbic acid.[nature.com]

Prognosis

  • ., memory impairment) Grading Clinical features Diagnosis Prognosis Stage I Difficulty concentrating Poor memory Mood changes History Psychopathological findings Complete recovery within 2 years if no further exposure occurs.[amboss.com]
  • Prognosis The outcome of poisoning varies from complete recovery to death, and depends on the type and amount of the poison, the health of the victim, and the speed with which medical care is obtained.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Prognosis One of the hallmarks of phosgene toxicity is an unpredictable asymptomatic latent phase before the development of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Etiology

  • Overview Chronic toxic encephalopathy Etiology : chronic or repeated high-dose exposure (e.g,, inhalation) to organic solvents or heavy metals cerebral, cerebellar, and brain stem atrophy Presentation Mental conditions (e.g., personality changes) Multifocal[amboss.com]
  • The precise etiology though remains unknown. Some authorities class aniline as a carcinogen, although the IARC lists it in Group 3 (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans) due to the limited and contradictory data available.[toxipedia.org]
  • Alveoli may collapse, resulting in significant ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch, unless the patient receives ventilatory support with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) Etiology Phosgene exposure may result from any of the following [ 11 ] :[emedicine.medscape.com]

Epidemiology

  • What, then, of the epidemiology that the WHO in 1992 was boldly to describe as "comprehensive and exacting epidemiological studies, subjected to critical independent assessment"? Muro's work was first-hand.[theguardian.com]
  • Oil mixtures containing rapeseed oil denatured with aniline have been clearly linked by epidemiological and analytic chemical studies to the toxic oil syndrome that hit Spain in the spring and summer of 1981, in which 20,000 became acutely ill, 12,000[toxipedia.org]
  • Epidemiology According to OSHA, millions of kilograms of phosgene are produced annually, with 10,000 workers at risk of exposure.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Because phosgene is poorly soluble in water, it reacts minimally with oropharyngeal and conducting airway tissues and as a result can penetrate deeply into the lung, where it exerts its effects at the alveolar-capillary membrane (see Pathophysiology).[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Prevention Most accidental poisonings are preventable. The number of deaths of children from poisoning has declined from about 450 per year in the 1960s to about 50 each year in the 1990s.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Reduction of the amount of prostoglandin, therefore, helps prevent headaches and other pain. How it's made Paracetamol is one of the most common drugs used in the world, and is manufactured in huge quantities.[ch.ic.ac.uk]
  • (ERG, 2016) Protective Clothing Skin: Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact. Eyes: Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.[cameochemicals.noaa.gov]
  • Resources are available through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) .[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • A small amount of zinc powder is added to prevent oxidation when it is distilled. The purified aniline can be added 10 15ppm NaBH4 to prevent oxidation deterioration. The solution of aniline is alkaline.[chemicalbook.com]

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