Anisakiasis (Anisakiases)

Anisakiasis is a rare parasitic disease in humans who eat raw marine fish and squid. It is caused by Anisakis nematodes when their larvae invade the gastrointestinal mucous membrane to cause inflammatory symptoms. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy along with radiological investigations like ultrasonography and computed tomography help confirm the diagnosis.

Anisakiasis is induced by the following process: infectious.

Presentation

Anisakiasis is a rare parasitic disease which occurs when the larvae of the nematode Anisakis are ingested by humans through raw or undercooked fish or squid [1] [2]. The larvae invade the gastrointestinal lining leading to the symptoms of anisakiasis. The highest incidence of the illness has been reported to be in winter [3] due to the high consumption of raw fish in that season. The symptoms depend on the site invaded by the larvae and can be classified as gastric, intestinal, and ectopic anisakiasis [1] [4] [5]. A majority of the patients have gastric anisakiasis.

Symptoms of gastric anisakiasis typically start within 12 hours of ingestion of infected raw fish or squid [3] while those of intestinal anisakiasis have been reported to occur up to a week after ingestion [1] [6]. The commonest symptom is sudden onset severe abdominal or epigastric pain resembling an acute abdomen. This is accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Intestinal anisakiasis can present with symptoms resembling Crohn's disease with an inflammatory mass. Other reported presentations include severe hematemesis in patients with gastric ulcer and hemoptysis [3] [7] [8] [9] [10]. The Anisakis larvae do not survive for long in the human gastrointestinal tract and therefore the symptoms subside in a couple of weeks with medical management [11]. However, a few cases of intestinal strangulation and obstruction requiring surgical intervention have been reported [12] [13].

Workup

Clinical suspicion is very vital in the work up for anisakiasis. The first step in the diagnosis is to obtain a history of ingestion of raw or undercooked fish or squid, if possible, as patients may forget details about their meals. After a thorough physical examination, the next step is to order routine laboratory tests like complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum electrolytes and stool test for larvae, although stool test is not useful in most cases.

Currently, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy forms the mainstay of the diagnosis and requires accurate interpretation of the clinical images to identify the causative worm sticking to the stomach wall. Intestinal anisakiasis is difficult to diagnose as the small intestine cannot be accessed with the endoscope [14]. Capsule endoscopy or double balloon endoscopy may not be available universally. Another method to diagnose anisakiasis is by examining Anisakis-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG, and IgE. These tests have a high sensitivity [15] [16] but do not provide results immediately and are therefore not useful in practice.

Radiological tests can help to confirm the diagnosis of anisakiasis. On ultrasonography, features of anisakiasis include severe localized Kerckring’s fold edema (corn sign), and dilatation of the proximal small intestine with the accumulation of fluid [14]. Computed tomography scan findings show partial small bowel edema and dilatation of the small intestine with fluid collection on the cranial side of the lesion [12] [17] [18].

Treatment

Prognosis

Etiology

Epidemiology

Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

Prevention

Summary

Patient Information

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References

  1. Chai JY, Darwin Murrell K, Lymbery AJ. Fish-borne parasitic zoonoses: status and issues. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:1233–1254.
  2. Sohn WM, Murrell JY. Anisakiosis (Anisakidosis) In: Palmer SR, Soulsby L, Torgerson PR, Brown DWG, editors. Oxford Textbook of Zoonoses-Biology, Clinical Practice, and Public Health Control. London, UK: Oxford University Press; 2011; pp. 774–786.
  3. Sohn WM, Na BK, Kim TH, Park TJ. Anisakiasis: report of 15 gastric cases caused by Anisakis Type I larvae and a brief review of Korean Anisakiasis cases. Korean J Parasitol. 2015 Aug; 53 (4): 465 -470
  4. Nawa Y, Hatz C, Blum J. Sushi delights and parasites: the risk of fishborne and foodborne parasitic zoonoses in Asia. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:1297–1303.
  5. Audicana MT, Kennedy MW. Anisakis simplex: from obscure infectious worm to inducer of immune hypersensitivity. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008;21:360–379
  6. Shirahama M, Koga T, Ishibashi H, Uchida S, Ohta Y, Shimoda Y. Intestinal anisakiasis: US in diagnosis. Radiology. 1992;185:789–793.
  7. Lee EJ, Kim YC, Jeong HG, Lee OJ. The mucosal changes and influencing factors in upper gastrointestinal anisakiasis: analysis of 141 cases. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2009;53(2):90–97.
  8. Lee SH, Sin HG, Seol SY, Chung JM. A case of gastric anisakiasis causing severe gastric ulcer bleeding. Korean J Gastrointest Endosc. 1993;13:693–696.
  9. Lee HS, Park KS, Jung KT, et al. A case of chronic gastric anisakiasis with massive bleeding. Korean J Gastrointest Endosc. 1993;13:697–700.
  10. Kang DB, Park WC, Lee JK. Chronic gastric anisakiasis provoking a bleeding gastric ulcer. Ann Surg Treat Res. 2014;86:270–273.
  11. Matsui T, Iida M, Murakami M, et al. Intestinal anisakiasis: clinical and radiologic features. Radiology. 1985;157:299–302.
  12. Matsuo S, Azuma T, Susumu S, et al. Small bowel anisakiosis: a report of two cases. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:4106–4108
  13. Takabe K, Ohki S, Kunihiro O, et al. Anisakidosis: a cause of intestinal obstruction from eating sushi. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93:1172–1173.
  14. Shrestha S, Kisino A, Watanabe M, et al. Intestinal anisakiasis treated successfully with conservative therapy: importance of clinical diagnosis. Worl J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jan; 20 (2): 598 -602
  15. Suzuki T, Ishida K, Ishigaoka S, et al. Studies on the immunological diagnosis of Anisakiasis. Kiseichusi. 1975;24:184–191.
  16. Nisino C, Hayasaka H. Epidemiological Studies on Anisakiasis. Sapporoisi. 1977;46:73–88.
  17. Yoon SW, Yu JS, Park MS, et al. CT findings of surgically verified acute invasive small bowel anisakiasis resulting in small bowel obstruction. Yonsei Med J. 2004;45:739–742.
  18. Watanabe T, Ohta S, Iwamoto S, et al. Small bowel anisakiasis with self-limiting clinical course. Intern Med. 2008;47:2191–2192.

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