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Aniseikonia


Presentation

  • The test began with the student pointing out on the computer screen which of the two rectangular boxes presented was higher; then they continued to point out which of the rectangular boxes presented was larger.[scielo.br]
  • Approximately half of patients with macula-off RD showed micropsia and 10% presented macropsia.[iovs.arvojournals.org]
  • Each data point represents the result of one presentation as for example shown in Fig. 3, each with different I-bar sizes.[opticaldiagnostics.com]
  • Some possible causes include: Macular Pucker Epiretinal Membrane Retinal Detachment Repairs Macular Edema Macular Degeneration Often when aniseikonia is present, it may be noted that tasks are easier to perform when using only one eye compared to having[greatvision.osu.edu]
  • A 59-year-old physician presented with a larger image size noted out of his left eye 6 weeks following a CE/PCIOL procedure in the left eye. Eyestrain at intermediate and distant viewing distances was also reported.[aaopt.org]
Pain
  • Symptoms Most aniseikonic symptoms are quite general (a-specific), for example: headaches, asthenopia (ocular fatigue, burning, tearing, pain, pulling, etc.), light sensitivity, reading difficulty, nausea, and double images ( diplopia ).[wikidoc.org]
  • Symptoms can include headaches, double vision, disorientation or dizziness, tearing, eye pain or fatigue, sensitivity to light, visual acuity issues and trouble reading, as well as nausea.[columbiaeye.org]
  • Table 1: Characteristic symptoms of aniseikonia patients Symptom Percentage of patients Headaches 67% Astenopia (fatigue, burning, tearing, ache, pain, pulling, etc) 67% Photophobia 27% Reading difficulty 23% Nausea 15% Motility (diplopia) 11% Nervousness[opticaldiagnostics.com]
Asymptomatic
  • Conclusions:refractive surgery changes the corneal curvature and consequently the position of the Nodal Point all of which may cause a secondary asymptomatic low degree Horizontal Meridional Aniseikonia in approximately one third of the cases examined[glosbe.com]
Hypertension
  • […] lentis Retina Retinitis ( Chorioretinitis, Cytomegalovirus retinitis ) · Retinal detachment · Retinoschisis · Ocular ischemic syndrome / Central retinal vein occlusion · Retinopathy ( Bietti's crystalline dystrophy, Coats disease, Diabetic retinopathy, Hypertensive[dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr]
Iridodonesis
  • Iridodonesis, or an iris instability, is another symptom of aphakia. Contact lenses are the preferred treatment, over spectacles, with different prescription strengths for each eye.[columbiaeye.org]
Ectopia Lentis
  • lentis Retina Retinitis ( Chorioretinitis, Cytomegalovirus retinitis ) · Retinal detachment · Retinoschisis · Ocular ischemic syndrome / Central retinal vein occlusion · Retinopathy ( Bietti's crystalline dystrophy, Coats disease, Diabetic retinopathy[dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr]
Scintillating Scotoma
  • scotoma ) · Diplopia · Scotoma · Anopsia ( Binasal hemianopsia, Bitemporal hemianopsia, Homonymous hemianopsia, Quadrantanopia ) · Color blindness ( Achromatopsia, Dichromacy, Monochromacy ) · Nyctalopia ( Oguchi disease ) · Blindness / Low vision Pupil[dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr]
Eye Pain
  • Symptoms can include headaches, double vision, disorientation or dizziness, tearing, eye pain or fatigue, sensitivity to light, visual acuity issues and trouble reading, as well as nausea.[columbiaeye.org]
Snow Blindness
  • […] conjunctiva : Conjunctivitis ( Allergic conjunctivitis ) · Pterygium · Pinguecula · Subconjunctival hemorrhage Globe Fibrous tunic sclera : Scleritis cornea : Keratitis ( Herpetic keratitis, Acanthamoeba keratitis, Fungal keratitis ) · Corneal ulcer · Snow[dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr]
Nystagmus
  • […] classified ( R00 - R94 ) syphilis related eye disorders ( A50.01, A50.3-, A51.43, A52.71 ) Diseases of the eye and adnexa H49-H52 2020 ICD-10-CM Range H49-H52 Disorders of ocular muscles, binocular movement, accommodation and refraction Type 2 Excludes nystagmus[icd10data.com]
  • Quadrantanopia ) · Color blindness ( Achromatopsia, Dichromacy, Monochromacy ) · Nyctalopia ( Oguchi disease ) · Blindness / Low vision Pupil Anisocoria · Argyll Robertson pupil · Marcus Gunn pupil · Adie syndrome · Miosis · Mydriasis · Cycloplegia Other Nystagmus[dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr]

Workup

  • Diagnosis: Diagnosis of this condition usually requires a workup by an ophthalmologist.[medigoo.com]

Treatment

  • Patients have come from across the country and internationally to the Aniseikonia Service for evaluation and treatment options.[greatvision.osu.edu]
  • Treatment: Treatment is done by changing the optical magnification properties of the auxiliary optics (corrective lenses).[medigoo.com]
  • Treatment is with contact lenses, or magnification size-matched lenses (isokonic lenses). Celia Vimont Laurie Gray Barber. Eye Strain. American Academy of Ophthalmology. EyeSmart Eye health. . Accessed March 12, 2019.[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • The treatment plan included single vision iseikonic lenses with 1.28% size magnification over the right eye for distance use. Follow-up at 1 and 2 months revealed comfortable adaptation and significant reduction of symptoms.[aaopt.org]
  • Current guidelines for the treatment of amblyopia advocate full correction of anisometropia to equalise image clarity, but do not address aniseikonia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • […] of some value but may have a sensitivity of only 2-5%) alternate occlusion vertical dissociation double light - single Maddox rod ANISEIKONIA TESTS eikonometry standard or direct comparison eikonometer RESULTS office model space eikonometer RESULTS PROGNOSIS[umsl.edu]
  • In terms of aniseikonia, patients with macula-off RD have a better prognosis than patients with ERM, but a worse prognosis than patients with MH. The discrepancy between macula-off RD and ERM seems to be associated with disease duration.[nature.com]

Etiology

  • Etiology Aniseikonia can occur naturally or secondary to correction of a refractive error. Up to 7% of aniseikonia between the eyes is usually tolerated, and corresponds to approximately 3 diopters of anisometropia.[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • Etiology of Aniseikonia: 3 types *Which is the most common? 1. Optically Induced 2. Retinally Induced 3. Cortically Induced *Optically Induced!! Optically Induced Aniseikonia 1. What is it? a. 3 Causes? 1.[brainscape.com]

Epidemiology

  • Klein RKlein BEKWang QMoss SE The epidemiology of epiretinal membranes. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1994;403- 430 Google Scholar 5. Smiddy WEMichels RGGreen WR Morphology, pathology, and surgery of idiopathic vitreo retinal macular disorders.[jamanetwork.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • This article attempts to explain the pathophysiology of binocular diplopia associated with macular disease and aniseikonia.[jamanetwork.com]

Prevention

  • Above five per cent of aniseikonia, binocular inhibition or suppression tend to occur to prevent diplopia and confusion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Using sophisticated algorithms and analysis of of each eye, these lenses actually model the eye rotation in order to predict and prevent the distortions created by traditional lenses.[brighteyestampa.com]
  • Obstacle to Fusion 1% can cause symptoms 3-5% will place stress on BV 5% will prevent fusion 5% may contribute to strabismus and amblyopia 9. Retinal Image 10. Retinal Image 11. Spatial Distortion: Size Lens 12.[slideshare.net]
  • Epiretinal membranes cause image distortion that can prevent fusion. It is impossible therefore to tell the relative roles of aniseikonia or metamorphopsia in causing their symptoms. Probably there is an additive effect of these factors.[jamanetwork.com]

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