Anorexia Nervosa (Anorexia Mentalis)

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by a pathological fear of weight gain and usually excessive weight loss. There are two subtypes of anorexia nervosa: restricting type and binge eating–purging type.


Presentation

Anorexia nervosa patients present physical symptoms as well as behavioural and emotional symptoms.

Physical signs and symptoms of anorexia are [7]:

Emotional and behavioural symptoms associated with anorexia nervosa include:

  • Rejection of meals
  • Hiding hunger
  • Excessive fear of gaining weight
  • Dishonesty when discussing how much food has been consumed
  • Frequent, strenuous, or compulsive exercise
  • Signs of social withdrawal
  • Constant experimentation with food
  • Irritability
  • Constant display of uninterest
  • Lack of interest in sexual activities
  • Use of herbal products, laxatives, etc. 

Workup

Although there is no clear evidence to show that any particular treatment for anorexia nervosa works better than others, evidence shows that early intervention and treatment often prove effective in handling of the condition [9]. In general, anorexia nervosa treatment is focused on addressing these three main areas:

  • Restoration of the individual to a healthy weight
  • Treatment of psychological disorders related to the ailment
  • Reduction or eradication of behaviours responsible for the disorder in the first instance

Treatment

Treatment of this condition requires a physical, social and psychological assessment of the individual by health professionals, especially an eating disorder specialist. This assessment is important to decide the most suitable care plan to follow.

Generally, treatment of the condition will involve a combination of psychological therapy and individually tailored advice on eating and nutrition. This will help the patient gain weight safely.

Psychiatrists, specialist nurses and dietitians contribute at different stages to the treatment of anorexic individuals. The treatment is done on an outpatient basis except in serious cases where the individual must be treated in a hospital or specialist eating disorder clinics.

Prognosis

The prognosis of anorexia nervosa varies. Morbidity rates often range from 10 to 20% with only 50% of patients being able to recover fully. Of the remaining, 20% remain emaciated while another 25% still present thin body. The remaining either dies of starvation or become overweight [6].

However, mortality following complications as a result of starvation is far less frequent in patients with anorexia nervosa as death arising from suicide which is the chief source of mortality incidence. Suicide attempts are higher in people with a history of artificial inducement of physical pain, drug use, and laxative use.

Etiology

Anorexia nervosa is as a result of a complex interchange between social biologic and psychological factors [3]. It affects more women than men and in women it is mostly seen in adolescents.

Patients who develop anorexia nervosa often display a relatively high incidence of premorbid anxiety disorders. Since most cases of anorexia nervosa are seen within the pubescent years, experts believe that exertion of control over body weight and food consumption is the adolescents attempting to make up for what is seen as absence of selfhood and autonomy.

Some predisposing factors in eating disorders include:

  • Female sex
  • Difficulty discussing negative emotions
  • Low self-esteem
  • Family history of any kinds of eating disorders 
  • Perfectionistic personality
  • Difficulty resolving conflict

Maternal encouragement of weight loss (actively or passively) is also a risk factor for anorexia nervosa especially when the disorder is seen in children. The possibility of genetic predisposition has been pointed out following reported cases of anorexia nervosa in twins and triplets.

In individuals with anorexia nervosa, there is a lifelong incidence of anxiety, depressive disorders as well as obsessive-compulsive disorder. Systemic lupus eythematosus and congenital adrenal hyperplasia are common disorders associated with anorexia nervosa.

Epidemiology

The condition is seen in all developed countries and cuts across all socioeconomic classes. It occurs worldwide around the same rates of incidence of 0.3 to 1% in women and 0.1 to 0.3% in men. It is also seen in developing countries like China and Brazil [4].

Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

A standard case of anorexia begins with a young individual mildly overweight or normal weight going on a diet or exercise regime with a plan to lose weight. Following the initial positive results, he or she receives compliments from peers or family. This is deemed high reward by the individual and makes it difficult for them to stop this behaviour as soon as an ideal weight is achieved [5].

Malnutrition as a result of self-starvation brings about protein deficiency and a disruption of multiple organ systems including the cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal, neurologic, endocrine, integumentary, reproductive and hematologic systems.

Prevention

There's no guaranteed way to prevent anorexia nervosa or other forms of eating disorders [10].

Summary

Anorexia nervosa refers is an eating disorder where patients try their best to keep their body weight as low as they can [1]. They achieve this by severely restricting the amount of food they eat and vomiting after meals. They also engage in excessive exercising.

This condition develops as a result of anxiety about the shape of the body and weight and fear of becoming fat. Anorexic individuals often have a false image of themselves [2]. This makes they feel they are fat when in reality, they may be perfectly normal.

Anorexia is seen both sexes and peak age for the condition is 16 to 17 years.

Patient Information

Anorexia nervosa refers to an eating disorder which causes people be overly obsessed with their weight and what they consume. In such people, the focus is on trying to maintain body weight that is well below what is deemed normal for their height and age and they achieve this by starving themselves or exercising excessively.
People who have this problem make the mistake of equating thinness with self-worth.

This condition is difficult to overcome but with the right treatment and psychotherapy, the individual can return to a normal eating habit and also reverse any damages already caused by the condition.

Self-assessment

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References

  1. Miller KK, Grinspoon SK, Ciampa J, Hier J, Herzog D, Klibanski A. Medical findings in outpatients with anorexia nervosa. Arch Intern Med. Mar 14 2005;165(5):561-6.
  2. Eisler I, Simic M, Russell GF, Dare C. A randomised controlled treatment trial of two forms of family therapy in adolescent anorexia nervosa: a five-year follow-up. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. Jun 2007;48(6):552-60.
  3. Morris J, Twaddle S. Anorexia nervosa. BMJ. Apr 28 2007;334(7599):894-8.
  4. Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Salbach-Andrae H. Overview of treatment modalities in adolescent anorexia nervosa. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. Jan 2009;18(1):131-45.
  5. E Grange D. The Maudsley family-based treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa. World Psychiatry. Oct 2005;4(3):142-6.
  6. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), American Psychiatric Association, Arlington, VA 2013.
  7. Keel PK, McCormick L. Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment planning for anorexia nervosa. In: TheTreatment of Eating Disorders: A Clinical Handbook, Grilo CM, Mitchell JE (Eds), The Guilford Press, New York 2010. p.3.
  8. Andersen, AE, Yager, J. Eating disorders. In: Kaplan and Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, Volume I, Ninth Edition, Sadock, BJ, Sadock, VA, Ruiz P (Eds), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia 2009. p.2128.
  9. Weider S, Indredavik MS, Lydersen S, Hestad K. Neuropsychological function in patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord 2014.
  10. Hudson JI, Hiripi E, Pope HG Jr, Kessler RC. The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biol Psychiatry 2007; 61:348.

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