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Anterior Pituitary Disease


Presentation

  • A 36-year-old man presented to the emergency department with substernal chest tightness of 6 hours’ duration. The chest tightness was initially intermittent but became persistent 1 hour before presentation.[nejm.org]
  • In any case, an OP presenting baby is not an emergency, but could cause back labor or a slightly longer, more difficult labor. Greater risk of c-section In some cases an OP presentation may require more interventions, like a c-section.[mamanatural.com]
  • Fetal movement is present, just not as easily felt as with the posterior baby that has limbs kicking into the mother’s skin.[spinningbabies.com]
  • QUESTION-AND-ANSWER segments and expertly written explanatory notes at the end of each chapter STRATEGIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS on how to approach the board exam CURRENT PHARMACY TABLES that highlight indications, toxic effects, and drug interactions sections that present[books.google.com]
  • […] arrhythmia, LVH, diastolic dysfunction, and hypertension most is surgery due to pitutiary adenoma octreotide (somatostatin analog) may be used if can't do surgery; radiation or gamma knife plus medical therapy What are the various etiologies, clinical presentation[quizlet.com]
Rigor
  • Future Anterior: Journal of Historic Preservation, History, Theory, and Criticism Description: Future Anterior approaches historic preservation from a position of critical inquiry, rigorous scholarship, and theoretical analysis.[jstor.org]
  • Future Anterior approaches historic preservation from a position of critical inquiry, rigorous scholarship, and theoretical analysis.[upress.umn.edu]
Chronic Infection
  • Less frequently, other nonfunctioning neoplastic lesions, granulomas, chronic infections, atrophy, necrosis, hemorrhage, infarction or miscellaneous vascular disturbances account for pituitary failure.[annals.org]
Heart Block
  • Related Topics Left bundle branch block LBBB Right Bundle Branch Block RBBB Left anterior fascicular block LAFB Left posterior fascicular block LPFB Interventricular Conduction Delay IVCD Bifascicular block Trifascicular block Complete Heart block CHB[lifeinthefastlane.com]
  • Roughly 7% of cases progress to bifascicular block (which means that the LAFB is accompanied by a right bundle branch block), while 3% progress to third-degree AV block (complete heart block).[ecgwaves.com]
Ear Deformity
  • Examples are: · Septo-optic dysplasia (hypothalamic dysfunction, cleft palate, syndactyly, ear deformity, optic atrophy, microgenitals, anosmia). · Kallmann syndrome (isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, associated with defects of smell, X-linked).[medicscientist.com]
Impulsivity
  • […] delivers the electrical impulse to the posterior and inferior walls of the left ventricle.[ecgwaves.com]
  • The impulse reaches the left-sided leads later than normal, resulting in a increased R wave peak time (the time from onset of the QRS to the peak of the R wave) in aVL.[lifeinthefastlane.com]

Workup

Left Axis Deviation
  • ECG Criteria for Left Anterior Fascicular Block (LAFB) Left axis deviation (usually between -45 and -90 degrees) Small Q waves with tall R waves ( ‘qR complexes’) in leads I and aVL Small R waves with deep S waves ( ‘rS complexes’) in leads II, III, aVF[lifeinthefastlane.com]
  • The electrical axis will be shifted to the left (left axis deviation), ranging between -45 and -90 . The QRS duration will be slightly prolonged (the prolongation ranges between 0.01 to 0.04 seconds).[ecgwaves.com]
Bifascicular Block
  • Related Topics Left bundle branch block LBBB Right Bundle Branch Block RBBB Left anterior fascicular block LAFB Left posterior fascicular block LPFB Interventricular Conduction Delay IVCD Bifascicular block Trifascicular block Complete Heart block CHB[lifeinthefastlane.com]
  • Roughly 7% of cases progress to bifascicular block (which means that the LAFB is accompanied by a right bundle branch block), while 3% progress to third-degree AV block (complete heart block).[ecgwaves.com]
Left Anterior Fascicular Block
  • Left anterior fascicular block (hemiblock) and left posterior fascicular block (hemiblock).[ecgwaves.com]
  • […] by , last update November 25, 2018 Left Anterior Fascicular Block (LAFB) In left anterior fascicular block (previously left anterior hemiblock ), impulses are conducted to the left ventricle via the left posterior fascicle, which inserts into the infero-septal[lifeinthefastlane.com]
Right Bundle Branch Block
  • Next chapter Non-specific Intraventricular Conduction Delay Related chapters Overview of Intraventricular Conduction Defects Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB) Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB)[ecgwaves.com]
  • Related Topics Left bundle branch block LBBB Right Bundle Branch Block RBBB Left anterior fascicular block LAFB Left posterior fascicular block LPFB Interventricular Conduction Delay IVCD Bifascicular block Trifascicular block Complete Heart block CHB[lifeinthefastlane.com]
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
  • Myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, degenerative disease, hypertension, hyperkalemia, myocarditis, amyloidosis may all cause LAFB.[ecgwaves.com]

Treatment

  • The treatment may be medical by taking medicine to slow the pituitary gland down or may be more involved with surgical or radiation treatment.[chw.org]
  • If nonsurgical treatment fails, or if the risks of nonoperative treatment exceed the risks of surgery, then surgery options are considered. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion involves an incision in the front of the neck.[spine.org]
  • Once you have arthritis which has not responded to conservative treatment, you may well be a candidate for total hip replacement surgery.[scottfaucettmd.com]
  • For surgery, treatment of diabetes, cardiac failure, and hypertension are required. Intubation, posturing, and IV access difficulties may arise. Steroid supplementation postop is essential and 300 mg Hydrocortisone per day is adequate.[anaesthesia.med.usyd.edu.au]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis of left anterior fascicular block (LAFB) Isolated LAFB is considered a benign conduction defect.[ecgwaves.com]
  • Prognosis The prognosis for most patients with hypopituitarism is excellent. As long as therapy is continued, many experience normal life spans.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Outlook If hormone replacement therapy is adequate, the prognosis is good. Complications are often related to the underlying disease. For More Information Visit the Pituitary Network Association web site.[webmd.com]
  • While effective treatment of the underlying hormone deficiencies may improve these risks, it is often necessary to treat them directly. [6] Prognosis [ edit ] Several studies have shown that hypopituitarism is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular[en.wikipedia.org]

Etiology

  • […] cardiomyopathy with arrhythmia, LVH, diastolic dysfunction, and hypertension most is surgery due to pitutiary adenoma octreotide (somatostatin analog) may be used if can't do surgery; radiation or gamma knife plus medical therapy What are the various etiologies[quizlet.com]
  • Etiology Pituitary adenomas are the most common pituitary disorder. They are classified by size and function.[unboundmedicine.com]
  • A retrospective evaluation of etiology with special regard to psychogenic factors and weight loss. Am J Obstet Gynecol 118: 473–479, 1974 PubMed Google Scholar 23. Lachelin GCL, Yen SSC: Hypothalamic chronic anovulation.[link.springer.com]
  • Serum levels of pituitary hormones are lower than normal. hypopituitarism Endocrinology A condition characterized by secretion of one or more anterior pituitary or adenohypophyseal hormones Etiology Idiopathic, pituitary tumor, hypothalamic or infundibular[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]

Epidemiology

  • Fries H, Nillius SJ, Pettersson F: Epidemiology of secondary amenorrhea. II. A retrospective evaluation of etiology with special regard to psychogenic factors and weight loss. Am J Obstet Gynecol 118: 473–479, 1974 PubMed Google Scholar 23.[link.springer.com]
  • Epidemiology [ edit ] There is only one study that has measured the prevalence (total number of cases in a population) and incidence (annual number of new cases) of hypopituitarism. [1] This study was conducted in Northern Spain and used hospital records[en.wikipedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Furthermore, headaches are common in the general population and there is no guarantee that surgery will alleviate the headaches and all patients with hyperplasia because the headaches might be due to some other pathophysiological mechanism.[pituitaryworldnews.org]
  • Pathophysiology [ edit ] The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain, and intimately connected with the hypothalamus.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Tolis G, Labrie, F, Martin JB, et al (eds): Clinical Neuroendocrinology: A Pathophysiological Approach . New York, Raven Press, 1979 Google Scholar 9. Rimoin DL, Schimke RN: Genetic Disorders of the Endocrine Glands .[link.springer.com]

Prevention

  • […] exam CURRENT PHARMACY TABLES that highlight indications, toxic effects, and drug interactions sections that present TYPICAL INDICATION CLINICAL SCENARIOS EXTENSIVELY EDITED CHAPTERS on cardiology, pulmonology, nephrology, critical care, geriatrics, preventive[books.google.com]
  • […] wound has healed If you have increasing redness or swelling in the wound or temperatures over 100.5 you should call your doctor If you are having any procedures such as dental work or any other surgery you should take antibiotics before and after to prevent[scottfaucettmd.com]
  • Prevention Pituitary adenomas are not associated with any known lifestyle or environmental risk factors, so there are no available methods to prevent the condition.[innerbody.com]
  • Prevention There is no known prevention of hypopituitarism, except for prevention of damage to the pituitary/hypothalamic area from injury. Key terms Adenoma — A benign (not threatening or cancerous) tumor that originates in a gland.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Dexamethasone suppression test: At 11 PM, you are given 1 mg of dexamethasone by mouth, together with milk or an antacid to prevent gastric irritation.[healthcommunities.com]

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