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Anthracosilicosis

Anthracosilicoses

Anthracosilicosis is a term describing the concomitant exposure to silica and carbon from air pollution and smoke, causing a variable clinical presentation involving the respiratory system. It is almost exclusively encountered in the industrial setting, and the diagnosis rests on clinical criteria, findings obtained during history, and imaging studies.


Presentation

Anthracosilicosis is very rarely described in the medical literature and the term was created as a combination of two separate disorders [1] [2]:

  • Anthracosis - Defined as the accumulation of carbon in the lungs as a result of exposure to significant amounts of coal dust or smoke in heavily polluted areas or in the industrial setting, anthracosis is primarily an asymptomatic condition resulting in black discoloration of the lungs [1] [3] [4]. However, cough and dyspnea, particularly after substantial deposition of carbon, are described as potential symptoms [3] [4].
  • Silicosis - Being one of the most severe forms of occupational lung disease due to its life-threatening risk in the absence of an early diagnosis and early prevention, silicosis stems from inhalation of crystalline silica [5]. Mining, stone cutting, quarrying, cement manufacturing and stone, clay or glass industries are industries where workers can inhale significant concentrations of this mineral [4]. Symptoms such as dyspnea, breathlessness, and cough may appear acutely (within weeks or months) when very high amounts are inhaled, or after years of persistent occupational exposure [4] [5].

Consequently, the clinical presentation of dyspnea, cough, and breathlessness is typically seen, but reports also show that melanoptysis (black-pigmented sputum) and chest pain might also be present [1].

Asymptomatic
  • […] combination of two separate disorders: Anthracosis - Defined as the accumulation of carbon in the lungs as a result of exposure to significant amounts of coal dust or smoke in heavily polluted areas or in the industrial setting, anthracosis is primarily an asymptomatic[symptoma.com]
  • This form of the disease is asymptomatic and a fairly mild form. Many urban dwellers will unwittingly be sufferers due to poor air quality issues in some large cities.[medigoo.com]
  • The disease can progress from asymptomatic anthracosis to massive lung fibrosis. This lung lesion usually occurs in coal miners, but can be seen in urban dwellers and tobacco smokers.[icd10data.com]
Italian
  • Look up "anthracosilicosis" at Merriam-Webster Look up "anthracosilicosis" at dictionary.com In other languages: Spanish French Italian Portuguese Romanian German Dutch Swedish Russian Polish Czech Greek Turkish Chinese Japanese Korean Arabic Advertisements[wordreference.com]
Pathologist
  • Edited by four leading surgical pathologists - Noel Weidner, MD, Richard J. Cote, MD, Saul Suster, MD and Lawrence M.[books.google.com]
Turkish
  • Look up "anthracosilicosis" at Merriam-Webster Look up "anthracosilicosis" at dictionary.com In other languages: Spanish French Italian Portuguese Romanian German Dutch Swedish Russian Polish Czech Greek Turkish Chinese Japanese Korean Arabic Advertisements[wordreference.com]
Cough
  • However, cough and dyspnea, particularly after substantial deposition of carbon, are described as potential symptoms.[symptoma.com]
  • Chronic cough (with increased risk of chronic bronchitis). Shortness of breath. Chronic cough. Black sputum. Lung dysfunction. Pulmonary hypertension. Heart problems.[medigoo.com]
  • In chronic silicosis, you may only have an abnormal chest X-ray in the beginning and then slowly develop a cough and breathing difficulty. More than a third of people with silicosis have phlegm production and cough.[lung.org]
  • The symptoms resulting from this include a cough, with or without sputum, shortness of breath particularly on exertion, and chest tightness.[silicosis.com]
  • People develop difficulty breathing during exercise that sometimes progresses to shortness of breath even at rest, and some people also have a cough that may or may not produce sputum. Diagnosis is made with a chest x-ray or computed tomography.[merckmanuals.com]
Dyspnea
  • However, cough and dyspnea, particularly after substantial deposition of carbon, are described as potential symptoms.[symptoma.com]
  • Hospital “B” (12 months later) Chief Complaint : Acute dyspnea had occurred a week earlier.[aoemj.biomedcentral.com]
  • As the disease progresses, airflow limitation occurs, manifested by dyspnea and cough. Eventually, cor pulmonale and respiratory failure develop.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • There was gradual progress of dyspnea, edemata of the lower extremities, lumbar spine. Objectively: pale skin, weakening of the heart sounds, anasarca. AP- 160/100 mm Hg.[slideshare.net]
  • Collins filed his claim for compensation on July 7, 1969, shortly after being at a hospital where an entry reading "Dyspnea on exertion * * * Will apply for compensation" was made. Death occurred on May 16, 1973.[law.justia.com]
Rales
  • On examination: deafening of the percutory sounds in interscapular region, rough breath sounds, dry disseminated rales. On fingers' skin - greyish 3. warts. Factory's sectorial doctor suspects asbestosis.[slideshare.net]
Chronic Cough
  • Chronic cough (with increased risk of chronic bronchitis). Shortness of breath. Chronic cough. Black sputum. Lung dysfunction. Pulmonary hypertension. Heart problems.[medigoo.com]
Chest Pain
  • Consequently, the clinical presentation of dyspnea, cough, and breathlessness is typically seen, but reports also show that melanoptysis (black-pigmented sputum) and chest pain might also be present.[symptoma.com]
  • Common Silicosis Symptoms: shortness of breath following physical exertion severe cough fatigue loss of appetite chest pains fever cyanosis (bluish skin) and others. (See your doctor and get diagnosed).[silicosis.com]
  • In acute silicosis, you may experience fever and sharp chest pain along with breathing difficulty. These symptoms can come on suddenly.[lung.org]
  • Anthracosis symptoms (cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue) are progressive in nature it's cool buy prednisone 10mg .[carbohealth.com]
  • Feedback The correct answer is: Ulcer of stomach, complicated with bleeding Question 42 Not answered Mark 0.00 out of 1.00 Flag question Question text A 29-year-old female patient complains of dyspnea, heaviness and chest pain on the right, body temperature[slideshare.net]
Cyanosis
  • Common Silicosis Symptoms: shortness of breath following physical exertion severe cough fatigue loss of appetite chest pains fever cyanosis (bluish skin) and others. (See your doctor and get diagnosed).[silicosis.com]
  • On physical exam: there is edema of lips, eyelids, cyanosis. What medicine is to be taken first? Select one: a. Euphylin b. Adrenalin c. Prednisolone d. Lasix e.[slideshare.net]
Night Sweats
  • One should strongly consider the possibility of superimposed mycobacterial infection in any patient with unexplained weight loss, chronic cough, fever, or night sweats. NOTE: The above information is for processing purpose.[medigoo.com]

Workup

Regardless of the type of occupational or environmental lung disease, a detailed patient history, and a thorough physical examination are the first and most important steps in the workup. Chronic respiratory complaints must prompt the physicians to obtain information about the patient's occupation and daily exposure to air pollution, which has been confirmed as a possible cause of anthracosilicosis [1]. Lung auscultation may reveal wheezing, and along with symptoms of cough, dyspnea or breathlessness, is sufficient evidence to look for an underlying cause through lung function tests and imaging studies. In most cases, an obstructive pattern of impaired lung function is observed at spirometry [1] [4] [5]. On the other hand, plain radiography is a useful initial method for assessment, as non-homogeneous pulmonary infiltrates and reticulonodular opacities are typical for anthracosis and anthracosilicosis [1] [3], whereas calcified hilar nodes producing an "eggshell" pattern is typical for silicosis [4]. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), however, is a superior imaging procedure compared to chest X-rays and is recommended whenever possible due to its ability to visualize the exact site of the nodules and identify the extent and nature of the opacities [1] [4]. Finally, bronchoscopy may be implemented as a definite diagnostic measure, showing the abundance of anthracotic pigments and the presence of birefringent particles on polarized light microscopy, the main hallmarks of anthracosis and silicosis, respectively [1].

Pulmonary Infiltrate
  • On the other hand, plain radiography is a useful initial method for assessment, as non-homogeneous pulmonary infiltrates and reticulonodular opacities are typical for anthracosis and anthracosilicosis, whereas calcified hilar nodes producing an "eggshell[symptoma.com]

Treatment

  • Treatment: Treatment for both simple anthracosilicosis and progressive anthracosilicosis is symptomatic. Use oxygen as hypoxemia demands.[medigoo.com]
  • P.A. 1950 34 The roentgenologic aspects of anthracosilicosis. ( 15417314 ) CORCORAN W.J. 1950 35 Studies in the clinical evaluation of disability of anthracosilicosis. ( 15405542 ) THEODOS P.A....Gordon B. 1950 36 Anthracosilicosis and its symptomatic treatment[malacards.org]
  • Is there a medical cure or any effective treatment for silicosis ? ( Silicosis Treatment ) Mr.[silicosis.com]
  • Treatment and prognosis Treatment is to remove the exposure, although silicosis may progress despite removal from the dust environment.[radiopaedia.org]

Prognosis

  • PMID: 635303 Prognosis Bataille L, Lonneux M, Weynand B, Schoonbroodt D, Collard P, Deprez PH Acta Gastroenterol Belg 2008 Apr-Jun;71(2):219-29.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment and prognosis Treatment is to remove the exposure, although silicosis may progress despite removal from the dust environment.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Since the occurrence of extrathoracic anthracosis is rare, its pathogenesis and prognosis are not clearly defined, and there have been some case reports of its occurrences in the spleen, liver, esophagus, sinuses, and retroperitoneum in Korea and other[aoemj.biomedcentral.com]

Etiology

  • [from MeSH ] Etiology Volobaev VP, Larionov AV, Kalyuzhnaya EE, Serdyukova ES, Yakovleva S, Druzhinin VG, Babich OO, Hill EG, Semenihin VA, Panev NI, Minina VI, Sivanesan SD, Naoghare P, da Silva J, Barcelos GRM, Prosekov AY Mutagenesis 2018 Apr 13;33[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology of this form anthracosis not ruled out a role of immune mechanism of lung tissue damage - proof of this is the frequent combination of coal pneumoconiosis and rheumatoid arthritis, called Kaplan syndrome and Colin.[carbohealth.com]

Epidemiology

  • -Granulomas are commonly distributed along the bronchovascular bundle or adjacent to the pleura -Hilar nodes are usually affected Describe the epidemiology of sarcoidosis (3).[quizlet.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Silicosis - Being one of the most severe forms of occupational lung disease due to its life-threatening risk in the absence of an early diagnosis and early prevention, silicosis stems from inhalation of crystalline silica.[symptoma.com]
  • Therefore, serially monitoring the chest radiographs of miners in order to prevent the development of complicated anthracosilicosis is prudent.[medigoo.com]
  • Signs of the disease can take up to 20 years to develop as the dust damages lung tissues, preventing oxygen from flowing into the body. There is no cure for the disease.[timeslive.co.za]
  • Controlling silica dust in the workplace is key to preventing silicosis.[merckmanuals.com]

References

Article

  1. Spalgais S, Gothi D, Jaiswal A, Gupta K. Nonoccupational anthracofibrosis/anthracosilicosis from Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India: A case series. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2015;19(3):159-166.
  2. Vanhoenacker FM, Van den Brande P, De Schepper AM. Hepatosplenic antracosilicosis: a rare cause of splenic calcifications. Eur Radiol. 2001;11(7):1184-1186.
  3. Mirsadraee M. Anthracosis of the Lungs: Etiology, Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis: A Review. Tanaffos. 2014;13(4):1-13.
  4. Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18e. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2012.
  5. Mazurek JM, Schleiff PL, Wood JM, Hendricks SA, Weston A; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Notes from the Field: Update: Silicosis Mortality - United States, 1999-2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(23):653-654.

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Last updated: 2019-07-11 21:34