Anthracosilicosis (Anthracosilicoses)

Anthracosilicosis is a term describing the concomitant exposure to silica and carbon from air pollution and smoke, causing a variable clinical presentation involving the respiratory system. It is almost exclusively encountered in the industrial setting, and the diagnosis rests on clinical criteria, findings obtained during history, and imaging studies.


Presentation

Anthracosilicosis is very rarely described in the medical literature and the term was created as a combination of two separate disorders [1] [2]:

  • Anthracosis - Defined as the accumulation of carbon in the lungs as a result of exposure to significant amounts of coal dust or smoke in heavily polluted areas or in the industrial setting, anthracosis is primarily an asymptomatic condition resulting in black discoloration of the lungs [1] [3] [4]. However, cough and dyspnea, particularly after substantial deposition of carbon, are described as potential symptoms [3] [4].
  • Silicosis - Being one of the most severe forms of occupational lung disease due to its life-threatening risk in the absence of an early diagnosis and early prevention, silicosis stems from inhalation of crystalline silica [5]. Mining, stone cutting, quarrying, cement manufacturing and stone, clay or glass industries are industries where workers can inhale significant concentrations of this mineral [4]. Symptoms such as dyspnea, breathlessness, and cough may appear acutely (within weeks or months) when very high amounts are inhaled, or after years of persistent occupational exposure [4] [5].

Consequently, the clinical presentation of dyspnea, cough, and breathlessness is typically seen, but reports also show that melanoptysis (black-pigmented sputum) and chest pain might also be present [1].

cardiovascular
Chest Pain
  • In acute silicosis, you may experience fever and sharp chest pain along with breathing difficulty.[lung.org]
  • Anthracosis symptoms (cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue) are progressive in nature it's cool buy prednisone 10mg .[carbohealth.com]
  • Chest pain may be reported.[clevelandclinicmeded.com]
  • Feedback The correct answer is: Ulcer of stomach, complicated with bleeding Question 42 Not answered Mark 0.00 out of 1.00 Flag question Question text A 29-year-old female patient complains of dyspnea, heaviness and chest pain on the right, body temperature[slideshare.net]
Cyanosis
  • […] amaurosis , ameiosis , amitosis , anemosis , anhidrosis , anhydrosis , ankylosis , asbestosis , athetosis , baragnosis , barognosis , bromhidrosis , bromidrosis , brucellosis , byssinosis , chemosmosis , chromhidrosis , chromidrosis , cladoptosis , cyanosis[rhymedesk.com]
  • Common Silicosis Symptoms: shortness of breath following physical exertion severe cough fatigue loss of appetite chest pains fever cyanosis (bluish skin) and others.[silicosis.com]
  • Cyanosis of face, acrocyanosis are present.[slideshare.net]
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  • respiratoric
    Cough
    • Specific to Thoracic Surgery RISK FACTORS PREOPERATIVE FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT PRACTICAL APPROACH TO PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION PITFALLS AND CONTROVERSIES WEBBASED READING INTRODUCTION DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS PATIENT EVALUATION TREATMENT Unexplained Chronic Cough[books.google.com]
    • More than a third of people with silicosis have phlegm production and cough.[lung.org]
    • The symptoms resulting from this include a cough, with or without sputum, shortness of breath particularly on exertion, and chest tightness.[silicosis.com]
    • People develop difficulty breathing during exercise that sometimes progresses to shortness of breath even at rest, and some people also have a cough that may or may not produce sputum.[merckmanuals.com]
    Dyspnea
    • THE NEURAL MECHANISMS OF DYSPNEA DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS PATIENT EVALUATION THE PATIENT WITH CHRONIC DYSPNEA SCALES TO MEASURE DYSPNEA DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS PATIENT EVALUATION DIAGNOSTIC ALGORITHM MASSIVE HEMOPTYSIS DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS PATIENT EVALUATION[books.google.com]
    • Hospital “B” (12 months later) Chief Complaint : Acute dyspnea had occurred a week earlier.[aoemj.biomedcentral.com]
    • Saber W, Dweik RA: A 65-year-old factory worker with dyspnea on exertion and a normal chest x-ray.[clevelandclinicmeded.com]
    • She developed progressing dyspnea, dry cough.[slideshare.net]
    • As the disease progresses, airflow limitation occurs, manifested by dyspnea and cough.[emedicine.medscape.com]
    Chronic Cough
    • Cough CONCLUSION INTRODUCTIONDEFINITION CONTROL OF BREATHING MECHANISM OF DYSPNEA THE NEURAL MECHANISMS OF DYSPNEA DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS PATIENT EVALUATION THE PATIENT WITH CHRONIC DYSPNEA SCALES TO MEASURE DYSPNEA DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS PATIENT EVALUATION[books.google.com]
    Pulmonary Disorder
    • DISORDERS MISCELLANEOUS PITFALLS AND CONTROVERSIES INTRODUCTION β2AGONISTS THEOPHYLLINE ANTICHOLINERGICS CROMONES ANTILEUKOTRIENES KETOTIFEN IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE OR CORTICOSTEROIDSPARING THERAPY FUTURE TRENDS IN THERAPY INTRODUCTION PHARMACODYNAMICS PHARMACOKINETICS[books.google.com]
    Rales
    Dry Cough
    Productive Cough
    • Shortness of breath or a productive cough is often related to chronic bronchitis or airflow obstruction.[clevelandclinicmeded.com]
    Dry Rale
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  • Entire body system
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  • Workup

    Regardless of the type of occupational or environmental lung disease, a detailed patient history, and a thorough physical examination are the first and most important steps in the workup. Chronic respiratory complaints must prompt the physicians to obtain information about the patient's occupation and daily exposure to air pollution, which has been confirmed as a possible cause of anthracosilicosis [1]. Lung auscultation may reveal wheezing, and along with symptoms of cough, dyspnea or breathlessness, is sufficient evidence to look for an underlying cause through lung function tests and imaging studies. In most cases, an obstructive pattern of impaired lung function is observed at spirometry [1] [4] [5]. On the other hand, plain radiography is a useful initial method for assessment, as non-homogeneous pulmonary infiltrates and reticulonodular opacities are typical for anthracosis and anthracosilicosis [1] [3], whereas calcified hilar nodes producing an "eggshell" pattern is typical for silicosis [4]. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), however, is a superior imaging procedure compared to chest X-rays and is recommended whenever possible due to its ability to visualize the exact site of the nodules and identify the extent and nature of the opacities [1] [4]. Finally, bronchoscopy may be implemented as a definite diagnostic measure, showing the abundance of anthracotic pigments and the presence of birefringent particles on polarized light microscopy, the main hallmarks of anthracosis and silicosis, respectively [1].

    Pathology

    Biopsy
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  • Laboratory

    Serum
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  • Imaging

    X-ray
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  • ECG

    Axis
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  • Test Results

    Pulmonary Function Test
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  • Treatment

    Prognosis

    Complications

    Respiratory Acidosis
    • Acidosis Metabolic Alkalosis CONTROL OF VENTILATION INTRODUCTION FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY THE NECK MUSCLES TESTING RESPIRATORY MUSCLE FUNCTION THE ABILITY TO BREATH THE LOADCAPACITY BALANCE RESPIRATORY MUSCLE RESPONSES TO CHANGES IN LOAD INTRODUCTION INDICATIONS[books.google.com]
    Pulmonary Fibrosis
    • Describe the process of pulmonary fibrosis development (3).[quizlet.com]
    • The scarring is called pulmonary fibrosis.[icdlist.com]
    • Such conditions include, but are not limited to, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, anthracosilicosis, anthracosis, anthrosilicosis, massive pulmonary fibrosis, silicosis or silicotuberculosis, arising out of coal mine employment.[definitions.uslegal.com]
    • ) NOS Postinflammatory pulmonary fibrosis with anthracosilicosis J60 anthracosis J60 Lymphadenitis I88.9 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code I88.9 Nonspecific lymphadenitis, unspecified 2016 2017 2018 Billable/Specific Code Applicable To Lymphadenitis NOS anthracosis[icd10data.com]
    • Visceral pleural thickening can be seen in diseases producing pulmonary fibrosis.[ijri.org]
    Silicosis
    • [anthraco- silicosis] anthracosilicosis /an·thra·co·sil·i·co·sis/ ( -sil″ĭ-ko sis ) anthracosis combined with silicosis . an·thra·co·sil·i·co·sis ( an'thră-kō-sil'i-kō'sis ) Pneumonoconiosis from accumulation of carbon and silica in the lungs from inhaled[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    • The pneumoconiosis conditions highlighted in this report include asbestosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, silicosis, byssinosis, & pneumoconioses classified as either unspecifiedÓ or otherÓ, as well as all pneumoconioses aggregated.[books.google.com]
    • USA pronunciation Neo-Latin; see anthraco -, silicosis Forum discussions with the word(s) "anthracosilicosis" in the title: No titles with the word(s) "anthracosilicosis".[wordreference.com]
    • While this may be true in many instances, the use of anthracosilicosis to indicate coal worker's pneumoconiosis is probably not entirely appropriate, because the pathology of coal workers pneumoconiosis is different from that of silicosis. 9, record 1[btb.termiumplus.gc.ca]
    • […] months National North Carolina number of workers occupations operation organized part-time farm pay rolls Pennsylvania percent percentage period persons plant population production Progress Administration projects proportion relief reported sharecroppers silicosis[books.google.com]
    Caplan Syndrome
    • If anthracosilicosis occurs with rheumatoid arthritis, it is called Caplan syndrome.[medigoo.com]
    • syndrome Seropositive rheumatoid arthritis associated with pneumoconiosis (coal, silica, or asbestos) IMAGING FINDINGS General Features Best diagnostic clue: Centrilobular and subpleural nodules in upper lung zones Patient position/location Rounded dusts[radiologykey.com]
    • A broadened concept of Caplan's syndrome related to rheumatoid factors.[emedicine.medscape.com]
    • Caplan’s syndrome is a nodular form of CWP seen in persons with rheumatoid arthritis.[clevelandclinicmeded.com]
    Hilar Adenopathy

    Etiology

    Epidemiology

    Sex distribution
    Age distribution

    Pathophysiology

    Prevention

    Summary

    Patient Information

    Self-assessment

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    References

    1. Spalgais S, Gothi D, Jaiswal A, Gupta K. Nonoccupational anthracofibrosis/anthracosilicosis from Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India: A case series. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2015;19(3):159-166.
    2. Vanhoenacker FM, Van den Brande P, De Schepper AM. Hepatosplenic antracosilicosis: a rare cause of splenic calcifications. Eur Radiol. 2001;11(7):1184-1186.
    3. Mirsadraee M. Anthracosis of the Lungs: Etiology, Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis: A Review. Tanaffos. 2014;13(4):1-13.
    4. Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18e. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2012.
    5. Mazurek JM, Schleiff PL, Wood JM, Hendricks SA, Weston A; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Notes from the Field: Update: Silicosis Mortality - United States, 1999-2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(23):653-654.

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