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Anticonvulsant

Agents Anticonvulsive


Presentation

  • Structurally, the most promising compounds (both urea and thiourea derivatives) presented smaller lateral chains and unsubstituted or para-substituted phenyl ring with a methyl group.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The aim of the present report is to describe four adolescents with antiepileptic drug hypersensitivity syndrome who were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and systemic corticosteroids.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a case of the anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome to emphasize the importance of recognizing the multiple clinical components of the syndrome and to raise awareness of the cross-sensitivity among anticonvulsants metabolized via arene oxide[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although nephrocalcinosis is not a common feature in patients with proximal tubulopathy, the patient presented also with this condition, and the concomitant use of another anticonvulsant might have potentiated this condition.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present two siblings born to an epileptic mother and the literature is reviewed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Epilepsy
  • That is, they either prevent the development of epilepsy or can halt or reverse the progression of epilepsy.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Epilepsy is one of the leading causes of chronic neurological morbidity worldwide. Acquired epilepsy may result from a number of conditions, such as brain injury, anoxia, tumors, stroke, neurotoxicity, and prolonged seizures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Future discoveries by the ASP (now renamed the Epilepsy Therapy Screening) can be expected to make additional contributions to improving the health of persons with epilepsy. KEYWORDS: Anti-seizure; Anticonvulsant; Epilepsy; Screening; Seizure[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Botanicals are increasingly used by people with epilepsy worldwide.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • KEYWORDS: Anticonvulsants; Drug overdose; Epilepsy; Pharmacokinetics; Poisoning[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fatigue
  • It curbs your pain and can help your fatigue and sleep problems. Gabapentin ( Neurontin ). Research shows this drug lessens pain and fatigue, and improves sleep. It's similar to pregabalin, and works in the same way.[webmd.com]
  • Side effects can include fatigue, imbalance, and behavioral changes, which often dissipate after the first month of treatment.[healthcommunities.com]
  • About a third of the people on gabapentin experienced unpleasant side effects, mostly nausea and fatigue, and so did 10 percent of those on placebo. The beneficial effects disappeared when patients stopped taking the drug.[well.blogs.nytimes.com]
  • Studies have shown decreased carnitine levels in people suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome.[angelfire.com]
  • Side Effects of Anticonvulsants Dizziness Drowsiness Fatigue Tremors Rash Weight Gain Long term use leads to liver damage Confusion Nausea or vomiting Common Anticonvulsant Drugs Neurontin Tegretol Topamax Dilantin Valpropate Stop suffering from the side[recoveryconnection.org]
Acute Intermittent Porphyria
  • Posttraumatic epilepsy and acute intermittent porphyria: effects of phenytoin, carbamazepine, and clonazepam. Neurology 1978;28:824-8. 8. Lambrecht RW, Gildemeister OS, Pepe JA, Tortorelli KD, Williams A, Bonkovsky HL.[porphyria.eu]
Transient Hypothyroidism
  • Although both women received anticonvulsant therapy, transient hypothyroidism was observed only in the hypothyroid woman and was found after treatment with classic anticonvulsant agents (carbamazepine and sodium valproate) but not with gabapentin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fever Followed by a Rash
  • The syndrome begins with fever followed by a rash that can progress to erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and multi-organ system involvement.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Nausea
  • All anticonvulsants have dose-dependent side effects on the central nervous system such as somnolence and nausea, but some agents have more specific side effects (e.g., gingival hyperplasia caused by phenytoin ).[amboss.com]
  • We describe a 31-year-old woman sent to the emergency department with symptoms of high fever, peripheral lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, nausea, vomiting and a vesiculobullous eruption resembling measles.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Common side effects include tingling sensations in the arms and legs, irregular eye movements, appetite loss, nausea, and others.[healthcommunities.com]
  • Headaches, chest pain, nausea, and fever are some of the side effects of this drug.[webmd.com]
  • Nausea, vomiting, indigestion, headaches, confusion and drowsiness sometimes occur but usually subside in a few weeks. Dosages Recommended By Investigators. Comes in 250 and 500 mg capsules. Dose is primarily based on body weight.[anxieties.com]
Constipation
  • It can also lead to stomach pain, constipation, nausea, and trouble concentrating. Muscle Relaxants Although experts aren't sure why, muscle relaxants can treat a variety of fibromyalgia symptoms. Cyclobenzaprine ( Flexeril ).[webmd.com]
  • It is well tolerated compared to other drugs but can cause drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, stomach pain, or headaches. Anticonvulsants and Suicide In 2008 the U.S.[cerebralpalsyguidance.com]
  • The most common side effects are constipation, mild nausea or vomiting, and mild dizziness, drowsiness, or lightheadedness. These problems usually go away as the body adjusts to the drug and do not require medical treatment.[faqs.org]
  • ‘Patients should be warned of possible side effects of this anticonvulsant medication (eg, nausea, vomiting, headache, diplopia, constipation, confusion, ataxia).’ ‘Her eyesight was impaired by glaucoma and she was on anticonvulsant drugs.’[oxforddictionaries.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • Side effects are usually mild or moderate and include the following: Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting Dizziness Double vision Drowsiness, fatigue Hyponatremia Loss of coordination, abnormal gait Zonisamide (Zonegram)—This drug is approved for use in adults[healthcommunities.com]
  • Other general side effects of anticonvulsants that do not usually require medical attention include: mild coordination problems mild dizziness abdominal pain or cramping sinus pain sleeplessness or nightmares change in appetite mild feelings of anxiety[encyclopedia.com]
  • Side effects for the drug are behavioral disturbances, nausea and drowsiness, hiccups, headache, rash, decrease in appetite, abdominal pain, and an unsteady walk.[dash.harvard.edu]
  • Other adverse effects include somnolence, headaches, abnormal thinking, abdominal pain, pharyngitis, ataxia, confusion, psychosis, and skin rash. No changes in biochemical or hematologic parameters are reported.[emedicine.com]
Mucocutaneous Rash
  • Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome is a disease characterized by multisystemic involvement, fever, lymphadenopathy, mucocutaneous rash, hypertransaminasemia and peripheral eosinophilia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Seizure
  • Individuals whose seizures at the most recent visit were fully controlled (seizure-free) for 6 months or longer were more likely to have ever tried, or currently used, oxcarbazepine or carbamazepine than those with uncontrolled seizures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 32-year-old mentally retarded man presented with a 12-month history of loss of seizure control, after being seizure-free for 5 years on a fixed regimen of phenobarbital and phenytoin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • After 1 month of melatonin plus phenobarbital therapy and for a year thereafter, the child's seizures were under control.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] to diminished potency and seizure recurrence.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The studied quinazoline analogues suggested that the butyl substitution at position 3 has a significant effect on preventing the spread of seizure discharge and on raising the seizure threshold.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Nystagmus
  • ., constant rate of drug eliminated) Gingival hyperplasia Stevens-Johnson syndrome Hirsutism Drug-induced lupus erythematosus Osteopathies Megaloblastic anemia Nystagmus , diplopia , ataxia Peripheral neuropathy Teratogenic : fetal hydantoin syndrome[amboss.com]
  • Overdoses of gabapentin have produced dizziness and diarrhoea, and those of lamotrigine lethargy, ataxia and nystagmus.[link.springer.com]
  • CNS effects occur particularly in the cerebellum and the vestibular system, causing ataxia and nystagmus. PHT is not a generalized CNS depressant; however, some degree of drowsiness and lethargy is present, without progressing to hypnosis.[emedicine.com]

Workup

  • […] or a delayed systemic hypersensitivity reaction after intake of a drug that they had also taken during a previous anticonvulsant DRESS which had occurred months or years earlier; in the fifth, a possible reaction was prevented thanks to the allergy workup[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Refer patients with intractable spells to a neurologist or an epileptologist for further workup, including video-electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring, to characterize the etiology of their seizures.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Treatment

  • Severe neurological and psychomotor deterioration combined with increased seizure activity showed a lack of response to the treatment. At the age of 29 mon the patient was in a pre-comatose stage at which time melatonin was added to treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • EXPERT OPINION: Whereas both valproate and carbamazepine are associated with, in part, severe adverse events, lamotrigine emerges as a relatively safe and well tolerated treatment option, especially in maintenance treatment and prevention of depressive[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Anticonvulsants are also increasingly being used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder, since many seem to act as mood stabilizers, and for the treatment of neuropathic pain.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • By two years of medical treatment, rickets had resolved and the growth plates of the lower limbs' joints had closed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is a group of long-term neurological disorders characterised by seizures that may respond to pharmacological treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Kaplan, The Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Prognosis of Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus, The Neurologist, 10.1097/01.nrl.0000162954.76053.d2, 11, 6, (348-361), (2005).[doi.org]
  • Infants with myoclonic epilepsies usually have a poor prognosis; however, in late childhood and adolescence, the syndrome of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is often the cause of myoclonic seizures.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Salas Puig, Prognosis in epilepsy: initiating long-term drug therapy, Neurología (English Edition), 30, 6, (367), (2015). Dieter Schmidt, Antiepileptic Drug Development, The Treatment of Epilepsy, (61-74), (2015).[doi.org]
  • Early-onset pneumonia after cardiac arrest: characteristics, risk factors and influence on prognosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011 ;184: 1048 - 1054 35. Polderman KH, Rijnsburger ER, Peerdeman SM, Girbes AR.[nejm.org]

Etiology

  • Most evidence regarding the etiology points to a genetically related defect in the detoxification enzyme. Early recognition is important in order to discontinue drug therapy. Continuity of care assists in prevention of re-exposure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Investigations ruled out an infectious etiology; an adverse event following phenobarbital administration was considered.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The diagnosis of AHS may be particularly elusive in patients with HIV because its common features can easily be confused with an infectious etiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is hoped that this will further our understanding of the initial stages of pregnancy and the etiology of various reproductive disorders.[news-medical.net]
  • These agents are useful in patients with hepatic failure, especially when a drug-induced etiology is suspected.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Epidemiology

  • Investigators have reported epidemiologic data and described the pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and management options.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • INTRODUCTION: This study provides an epidemiological description of non-health care facility medication errors involving anticonvulsant drugs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • University, Hangzhou, China. 4 Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China. 5 Department of Paediatrics, The Second Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China; and. 6 Department of Clinical Epidemiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Most patients in this epidemiologic study received treatment, and the chance of remaining seizure-free for 1 year without treatment must be less than 40%.[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Investigators have reported epidemiologic data and described the pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and management options.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Finally, areas for future research and exploring the pathophysiology and use of AEDs in this population are also discussed. The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Department of Organic Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 4A, 20-093 Lublin, Poland. 2 Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 8, Lublin 20-090, Poland. 3 Isobolographic Analysis Laboratory[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pathophysiology of focal-onset seizures differs from the mechanisms underlying generalized-onset seizures.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • This benefit may be explained by the actions of these drugs in the central nervous system; these actions probably are relevant to the pathophysiology of migraine. Objectives .[aafp.org]

Prevention

  • Treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can alleviate spontaneous seizure activity without preventing the progression and development of epileptogenesis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Preventing or arresting seizures. 2. An agent having such action. anticonvulsant A drug used to prevent or reduce the severity of epileptic attacks, or to prevent dangerous muscle contraction in electroconvulsive therapy.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Although treatment for this syndrome remains controversial and relies heavily on anecdotal evidence, the progression of hepatic injury may be prevented by the addition of N-AC.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Evaluation in pilocarpine status prevention proved that all of the reported compounds reduced spontaneous seizure activity and act as antiepileptogenic agents.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The studied quinazoline analogues suggested that the butyl substitution at position 3 has a significant effect on preventing the spread of seizure discharge and on raising the seizure threshold.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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