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Antidepressant

Agents Antidepressive


Presentation

  • In this respect, antidepressant drugs present antimicrobial effects that could also be related to the effectiveness of these drugs for MDD treatment. Conversely, some antimicrobials present antidepressant effects.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Weight Gain
  • Abstract Antidepressant medication influences cellular lipogenesis, being associated with metabolic side effects including weight gain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] linked to weight gain.[healthline.com]
  • weight gain may have a role.[doi.org]
Congestive Heart Failure
  • heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower back pain) from the patient's 12-month problem list in the EHR.[doi.org]
  • Since 2007, the FDA has added two black box warnings to the Avandia label to alert physicians about the potential increased risk of (1) congestive heart failure, and (2) myocardial infarction (heart attack).[justice.gov]
  • ., 2015 Citalopram 1 suicidal ideation, severe abdominal cramps 2 out of 73 No serious adverse event 0 out of 65 CIT-MD-03, 2005 Citalopram 2 congestive heart failure, 1 cerebro vascular accident, 1 hyponatremia 4 out of 84 1 cerebro vascular accident[dx.doi.org]
Family History of Diabetes Mellitus
  • ADM use and all the covariates were updated every 2–4 years and were treated as time-dependent variables, except for ethnicity and a family history of diabetes mellitus.[doi.org]
Sighing
  • Seo et al. [2013] Bupropion: 51Bupropion: 150–300Not statedNilOpen label8Bupropion: 51.2%Bupropion: 24.4%Not statedStatistically significant reduction in SIGH-SAD scores by study endpoint ( p 0.001).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The more recent work by Seo and colleagues ( n 52) found a significant reduction in SIGH-SAD total score by 53% from baseline (27.6 6.5) to week 8 (12.2 6.3) ( p 0.001) [ Seo et al. 2013 ].[dx.doi.org]
Constipation
  • This is the first systematic review to assess the frequency of side effects and unsurprisingly shows that patients on SSRIs report nausea and anxiety, whereas those on tricyclics complain of constipation and dry mouth.[doi.org]
  • The most common adverse effect is nausea followed by sexual dysfunction, constipation, and vomiting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A range of other, less serious side effects occur including weight gain, constipation, dry mouth, dizziness, headache, drowsiness, insomnia, and sexual side effects (problems with arousal or satisfaction).[clinical-depression.co.uk]
  • Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) side effects Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of antidepressant associated with sedation, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, urinary retention, and increased pressure in the eye.[rxlist.com]
Polydipsia
  • Nature. (2002) a b The effect of inositol on lithium-induced polyuria—polydipsia in rats and humans. a b c Allan SJ, et al. The effect of inositol supplements on the psoriasis of patients taking lithium: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.[examine.com]
Xerostomia
  • (including triptans), drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (including MAOIs), antipsychotics, dopamine antagonists, and nonpsychiatric MAOIs (eg, linezolid, IV methylene blue) May cause anticholinergic effects; use with caution in patients with xerostomia[reference.medscape.com]
Tachycardia
  • Drawbacks of TCAs: Adverse effects such as orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects, cardiovascular effects (arrhythmias and tachycardia). Overdose toxicity.[emedexpert.com]
  • Cardiovascular effects most commonly include sinus tachycardia, flushing, hypertension, and in rare cases, hypotension.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • However, selegiline is a selective MAO-B inhibitor with less hypertensive risk. [4] Any patient experiencing any of the following: agitation, flushing, tachycardia, hypotension or hypertension, palpations, twitching, increased deep tendon reflexes, seizures[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cardiovascular: tachycardia Overall significantly more participants in the amitriptyline group suffered from tachycardia (OR 3.88, 95% CI 1.71 to 8.80, P 0.001, five RCTs, 384 participants) ( Analysis 1.19 ). 20.[doi.org]
Motor Restlessness
  • , hyperactivity, hyperkinesia, hypomania (also listed as psychotic event), increased agitation, increased anxiety, increased energy, increased irritability, inner shakiness, irritability, jitteriness, jittery, mania (also listed as psychotic event), motor[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Angioedema
Chronic Anxiety
  • Several protective clinical indicators have been proposed, including a rapid-cycling course and comorbid chronic anxiety, whilst poor treatment adherence, proneness to emotional blunting and sub-threshold bipolarity have been identified as possible correlates[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This guideline covers the care and treatment of people aged 18 and over with generalised anxiety disorder (chronic anxiety) or panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia or panic attacks).[nice.org.uk]
Visual Hallucination
  • Joel Shuster , Shock-Like Sensations Associated with Antidepressant Withdrawal Acute Tumor Lysis Syndrome Caused by Hydroxyurea Zolpidem-Induced Visual Hallucinations Tooth Discoloration with Linezolid Sleepwalking Caused by SSRI ADR-Related Reports from[doi.org]
  • ., Vollenweider, F. ( 2013 ) Activation of serotonin 2A receptors underlies the psilocybin-induced effects on alpha oscillations, N170 visual-evoked potentials, and visual hallucinations. J Neurosci 33: 10544 – 10551.[dx.doi.org]
  • ., Vollenweider F. (2013) Activation of serotonin 2A receptors underlies the psilocybin-induced effects on alpha oscillations, N170 visual-evoked potentials, and visual hallucinations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Agitation
  • One patient developed transient increased agitation and exacerbation of pre-existing confusion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, because of this possible link, see your doctor promptly if you become increasingly restless, anxious or agitated, or if you have any suicidal thoughts.[patient.co.uk]
  • SSRIs, and SNRIs tend to have fewer and different side effects, such as nausea, nervousness, insomnia, diarrhea, rash, agitation, or sexual side effects (problems with arousal or satisfaction).[clinical-depression.co.uk]
  • Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include anxiety, agitation, sweating, confusion, tremors, restlessness, lack of coordination and rapid heart rate. Seek immediate medical attention if you have any of these symptoms.[mayoclinic.com]
Confusion
  • One patient developed transient increased agitation and exacerbation of pre-existing confusion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms include fever, muscle stiffness, and changes in mental status such as confusion or hallucinations.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • One reason it's confusing is that there's strong evidence that mothers with depression are more likely than other women to have a child with autism, whether or not they take antidepressants during pregnancy.[npr.org]
  • Symptoms include agitation, confusion, sweating, tremors, and a rapid heart rate The precipitation of a manic episode in people with undiagnosed bipolar disorder Duloxetine : A severe discontinuation syndrome MAOIs: Very severe drug interactions, very[drugs.com]
Seizure
  • This case series identified drug causes of seizures in patients with depressive disorders. Three patients with seizures were admitted for video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring in the context of high-dose antidepressants and sodium valproate.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tremor
  • ) 1 (mild euphoria) 1 (mild tremor) CSR 050-201 A13 Parallel study Male: 24.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Side effects of TCAs (tricyclic antidepressants) Fairly common side effects include dry mouth, blurred vision, drowsiness, dizziness, and tremors sexual problems, blurred vision, dizziness, drowsiness, skin rash, and weight gain or loss.[clinical-depression.co.uk]
  • Symptoms include agitation, confusion, sweating, tremors, and a rapid heart rate The precipitation of a manic episode in people with undiagnosed bipolar disorder Duloxetine : A severe discontinuation syndrome MAOIs: Very severe drug interactions, very[drugs.com]
  • Such combinations cause excessive serotonin levels in the brain, which may lead to confusion, high blood pressure, tremor, hyperactivity, coma, and death.[rxlist.com]
Bradykinesia
  • Such reactions include somatic symptoms (gastrointestinal and other general somatic distress, including dysesthesias and paresthesias), movement disorders (bradykinesia and akathisia), and neuropsychiatric distress (typically anxiety and agitation, sleep[doi.org]

Workup

  • ., hypothyroidism and anemia, leading to TSH, B12, and Hb testing being part of the workup). • Review of collateral information when available.[bcmj.org]

Treatment

  • Treatment initiation was analyzed using the cumulative incidence method including death as a competing risk. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify potential predictors of treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] the next treatment.[dx.doi.org]
  • […] adequately from several prior treatments.[ajp.psychiatryonline.org]
  • Treatment effects were described in the models as (1) a sudden-onset treatment response equating to a step function at week 4, (2) a step function at week 4 and a linearly increasing treatment effect, (3) a linearly increasing treatment effect, (4) a[doi.org]

Prognosis

  • Research suggests that psychotherapy may play an important role in enhancing the effects of antidepressant drug therapy and improving patients' long-term prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • PEA has been postulated to play a role in the etiology of migraine headache and aggression.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It should be emphasized, however, that the demonstration of such a biochemical abnormality would not necessarily imply a genetic or constitutional, rather than an environmental or psychological, etiology of depression.Whereas specific genetic factors[science.sciencemag.org]
  • […] arthroplasty who were on serotonergic antidepressants, it was found that though the intraoperative blood loss was significant; it was clinically unimportant. [6] SSRIs and pregnancy complications Serotonin has been suggested to play an important role in the etiology[jpharmacol.com]
  • This etiology is supported by evidence that drugs that restore chemical imbalances in the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain effectively mitigate symptoms of depression.[britannica.com]

Epidemiology

  • These figures are supported by epidemiological findings.[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • AIMS: To relate recent findings from the basic neurosciences to the pathophysiology of depressive disorder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Aims To relate recent findings from the basic neurosciences to the pathophysiology of depressive disorder.[dx.doi.org]

Prevention

  • Doogan DP, Caillard V: Sertraline in the prevention of depression. Br J Psychiatry 1992;160:217-222.[karger.com]

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