Antimony poisoning involves a toxic effect caused by a prolonged exposure to higher-than-normal concentrations of antimony, found either in the workplace or in therapeutic agents administered for the treatment of other conditions.
Antimony poisoning primarily occurs due to inhalational or oral exposure to the metal antimony and can be diagnosed both as acute toxicity or toxicity resulting over a long period of toxin exposure. This condition leads to a multitude of symptoms, affecting the respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and reproductive systems, as well as the skin and eyes. Various compounds of antimony, such as antimony oxide, trioxide, pentoxide, trichloride, and trisulfide, have been causally associated with a plethora of abnormalities in humans.
Chronic bronchitis and emphysema, latent tuberculosis, and pneumoconiosis are the main manifestations of antimony poisoning after persistent contact with airborne antimony  . Concerning pneumoconiosis, a variety of other potential metallic compounds such as arsenic oxide and sodium hydroxide may have been responsible for the disease, alongside antimony. Refractory cough and inflammation of the respiratory tract are amongst the predominant symptoms while pleural adhesions may also be caused by antimony poisoning. Inhalation of antimony also leads to gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities, which include abdominal cramping, diarrhea, vomiting and GI ulceration. The trisulfide, oxide and trichloride compounds have been particularly linked to these symptoms, even though co-toxicity due to other metals cannot be excluded   . Headache is an additional manifestation associated with antimony poisoning, along with conjunctivitis.
Menstrual irregularities and instances of miscarriage are also symptoms of antimony poisoning . Furthermore, individuals employed in high-temperature working spaces tend to develop dermal pustules referred to as antimony spots, in regions adjacent to sebaceous and sweat glands  . Chronic antimony poisoning by inhalation has been considered the culprit behind cardiovascular pathologies, such as an elevated blood pressure and T-wave abnormalities, although a firm association has yet to be established . A 1990 study also suggested that antimony poisoning of infants from antimony-containing cot mattress covers was the cause of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) .
Ingested antimony compounds are also known to lead to poisoning; individuals are expected to develop symptoms such as vomiting, nausea, epigastralgia and abdominal cramps, which can persist for days after the initiation of treatment .
Antimony poisoning can also be caused by antimonials used to treat other diseases, such as leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. Pentavalent antimonials used to cure leishmaniasis can induce poisoning which may rarely manifest with cardiotoxicity and death     . Pancreatitis, leukopenia and acute renal failure can also be ways in which antimony poisoning from therapeutic agents can present, especially in HIV-positive patients suffering from visceral leishmaniasis. Trivalent antimonials used to treat schistosomiasis were also a confirmed cause of antimony poisoning and patients presented with anorexia, vomiting, electrocardiographic abnormalities, while acute vascular collapse has also been documented; these drugs were discontinued as a therapy against schistosomiasis in 1970  .
The complete workup in order to diagnose antimony poisoning requires a thorough medical history, including potential exposure to metals. Occupational exposure is most common, as workers in metallurgy plants, mines, and other similar workplaces are susceptible to antimony poisoning.
A complete blood count and biochemical profile are performed to assess patient status and evaluate creatinine, electrolytes and hematocrit levels. Sector field and quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry can be used to detect antimony in the urine. Levels that exceed 10 mcg/L are deemed elevated . The toxic metal can also be found and measured in the blood, hair, and feces; blood levels greater than 2 ng/mL are also considered compatible with antimony poisoning . The workup is completed with a multitude of other procedures aimed at assessing each case separately, depending on the symptoms with which an individual presents.