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Anxiety Disorder

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by excessive bouts of anxiety and fear.


Presentation

The disorder is characterised by excessive bouts of anxiety and worry. The clinical presentation of anxiety disorders includes all or some of the following symptoms on a general scale [8]:

Cough
  • Also avoid over-the-counter diet pills and cough and cold medicines that contain a decongestant. Confront the things that have made you anxious in the past. Begin by just picturing yourself confronting these things.[familydoctor.org]
  • There may be symptoms like chest pain, difficulty breathing especially after exercise, fatigue, cough, palpitations etc. this needs to be ruled out.[news-medical.net]
Dyspnea
  • Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by apprehension of danger and dread accompanied by restlessness, tension, tachycardia, and dyspnea unattached to a clearly identifiable stimulus.[fpnotebook.com]
Fatigue
  • However, GAD was also highly associated with impaired psychological well-being, stress and fatigue (p   0.0001). In AMI patients, GAD was independently associated with less prehospital delay, but led to an impaired psychological state.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • At least 3 of the following emotional, somatic, and cognitive symptoms are present most of the time: restlessness or nervousness, being easily fatigued, poor concentration, irritability, muscle tension, or sleep disturbance. [1] American Psychiatric Association[bestpractice.bmj.com]
  • […] together. anxiety in: acute stress reaction ( ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code F43.0 Acute stress reaction 2016 2017 2018 2019 Billable/Specific Code Applicable To Acute crisis reaction Acute reaction to stress Combat and operational stress reaction Combat fatigue[icd10data.com]
  • The clinical presentation of anxiety disorders includes all or some of the following symptoms on a general scale: Restlessness or feeling keyed-up or on edge Being fatigued quickly Difficulty in concentration and the mind going blank Muscle tension Irritability[symptoma.com]
Weight Gain
  • The NNTHs for discontinuation due to adverse events, somnolence, sedation, 7% weight gain, and akathisia relative to placebo were estimated with 95% confidence intervals to reflect the magnitude of variance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Over the long term, it can even increase your risk of inflammation, weight gain, and chronic conditions like heart disease, says Chantal Gagnon , Ph.D., a licensed psychotherapist and Florida-based mental health counselor.[womenshealthmag.com]
  • Occasionally, upset stomach, diarrhea, insomnia, or weight gain may occur. Some children have behavioral adverse effects (eg, agitation, disinhibition); these effects are usually mild to moderate.[merckmanuals.com]
  • They may cause dizziness, drowsiness, dry mouth, constipation, or weight gain. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).[womenshealth.gov]
Family History of Depression
  • They also are more likely to have a family history of depression. 3 Panic disorder . Panic disorders are twice as common in women as in men. 4 People with panic disorder have sudden attacks of terror when there is no actual danger.[womenshealth.gov]
Weight Loss
  • (My friend Anne says that the most effective weight-loss program she ever tried was the Stressful-Divorce Diet.)[theatlantic.com]
Nausea
  • In terms of tolerability, the most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events were nausea, dry mouth, dizziness, insomnia, somnolence, and headache.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This anxiety interferes with day-to-day life and can manifest in physical symptoms such as headaches, nausea, trembling, and fidgeting.[ulifeline.org]
  • Physical symptoms may include chest pain, dizziness, nausea, sweating, tingling or numbness, and a racing heartbeat.[uhs.umich.edu]
  • Some of the most common anxiety symptoms include irrational feelings of fear, dread, or danger tension worry physical symptoms such as agitation, trembling, nausea, hot or cold flashes, dizziness, shortness of breath, or frequent urination.[health.harvard.edu]
Diarrhea
  • They can also have side effects, such as dry mouth, nausea, and diarrhea. These symptoms bother some people so much that they stop taking these medications.[healthline.com]
  • Restlessness or irritability Anticipating the worst and being watchful for signs of danger Physical symptoms: Pounding or racing heart and shortness of breath Sweating, tremors and twitches Headaches, fatigue and insomnia Upset stomach, frequent urination or diarrhea[nami.org]
  • […] edge Difficulty concentrating, or the feeling that your mind "goes blank" Physical signs and symptoms may include: Fatigue Trouble sleeping Muscle tension or muscle aches Trembling, feeling twitchy Nervousness or being easily startled Sweating Nausea, diarrhea[mayoclinic.org]
  • When confronted with these situations, the individual may experience blushing, diarrhea , elevated heart rate, nausea , sweating, or trembling. Social anxiety disorder often is accompanied by depression and an increased risk of alcohol abuse .[britannica.com]
Vomiting
  • A person with a fear of vomiting (either fearing that they will vomit, or that that they'll see someone else vomit) would be considered to have Emetophobia .[anxietycoach.com]
  • Over the past several months, she has been having terrible stomachaches in the morning, and sometimes vomits before going to school.[anxietybc.com]
  • Along with the worry and dread, people with generalized anxiety have physical symptoms, such as chest pain, headache, tiredness, tight muscles, stomachaches, or vomiting.[kidshealth.org]
  • ’s been a while since I last vomited.[theatlantic.com]
Constipation
  • Depending on the medication your doctor prescribes, you may experience any of the following side effects: Insomnia Lowered libido Stomach aches Increase heart rate Constipation Blurry vision Anti-Anxiety Drug Addiction, Dependence and Withdrawal Unfortunately[psychguides.com]
  • They may cause dizziness, drowsiness, dry mouth, constipation, or weight gain. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).[womenshealth.gov]
Loss of Appetite
Palpitations
  • Other symptoms of a panic attack include sweating, chest pain, palpitations (unpleasant sensations of irregular heartbeats) and a feeling of choking, which might make the person feel like he or she is having a heart attack or "going crazy."[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • During a panic attack , you may also sweat, have chest pain , and feel palpitations (unusually strong or irregular heartbeats). Sometimes you may feel like you’re choking or having a heart attack . Social anxiety disorder .[webmd.com]
  • Other common complaints are autonomic in nature, such as sweating, lightheadedness, palpitations, dizziness, and epigastric discomfort. [2] World Health Organization. International classification of diseases, tenth revision.[bestpractice.bmj.com]
Chest Pain
  • Recurrent panic attacks--sudden waves of intense anxiety, apprehension, fearfulness, or terror, with physical symptoms such as shortness of breath, palpitations, sweating, and chest pains. Specific phobias.[health.harvard.edu]
  • During a panic attack , a person has symptoms such as heart palpitations, sweating, trembling, dizziness, chest pain, and fear of losing control, going crazy, or dying. Panic disorder can occur with or without agoraphobia.[sparknotes.com]
  • Physical symptoms may include chest pain, dizziness, nausea, sweating, tingling or numbness, and a racing heartbeat.[uhs.umich.edu]
  • Often mistaken for a heart attack, a panic attack causes powerful, physical symptoms including chest pain, heart palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath and stomach upset.[myburke.org]
Heart Disease
  • The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is an instrument that is commonly used to screen for depression in patients with chronic disease, but the characteristics of the CES-D in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have not[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Anxiety disorders are real, serious medical conditions - just as real and serious as physical disorders such as heart disease or diabetes. Anxiety disorders are the most common and pervasive mental disorders in the United States.[adaa.org]
  • Kidney stones are a known risk, but studies have investigated other potential safety concerns, including an increased risk of death, cancer and heart disease. By RICHARD KLASCO, M.D[nytimes.com]
  • Over the long term, it can even increase your risk of inflammation, weight gain, and chronic conditions like heart disease, says Chantal Gagnon , Ph.D., a licensed psychotherapist and Florida-based mental health counselor.[womenshealthmag.com]
  • Diagnosis Physical symptoms of an anxiety disorder can be easily confused with other medical conditions, like heart disease or hyperthyroidism.[nami.org]
Tachycardia
  • Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by apprehension of danger and dread accompanied by restlessness, tension, tachycardia, and dyspnea unattached to a clearly identifiable stimulus.[fpnotebook.com]
  • A combination of these disorders can bring about physical symptoms like tachycardia and shakiness. There are different forms of anxiety disorders with each of them varying in seriousness but they have identical presentations.[symptoma.com]
  • The cardinal symptoms of serotonin syndrome are tachycardia, hemodynamic instability, confusion, and fever.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • , 14q, 22q, 4q31-q34, and probably 9q31 may be associated with the heritability of panic disorder phenotype. [16] The cognitive theory regarding panic is that patients with panic disorder have a heightened sensitivity to internal autonomic cues (eg, tachycardia[emedicine.medscape.com]
Hypertension
  • Maternal treatment with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor is also associated with hypertensive disease of pregnancy and cesarean delivery.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Anxiety disorders may also contribute to morbidity and mortality via direct stimulation such as hypertension or cardiac arrhythmia or neuroimmune and neuroendocrine mechanisms.[symptoma.com]
  • Anxiety disorders may contribute to morbidity and mortality through neuroendocrine and neuroimmune mechanisms or by direct neural stimulation, (eg, hypertension or cardiac arrhythmia).[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • They are prone to flare up at times of high stress and are frequently accompanied by physiological symptoms such as headache , sweating , muscle spasms , tachycardia , palpitations , and hypertension , which in some cases lead to fatigue .[en.wikipedia.org]
Muscle Twitch
  • The physiological manifestations that accompany social anxiety may include intense fear, racing heart, turning red or blushing, excessive sweating, dry throat and mouth, trembling, swallowing with difficulty, and muscle twitches.[anxietynetwork.com]
  • Emotional Symptoms The feelings that accompany social anxiety include anxiety, high levels of fear, nervousness, automatic negative emotional cycles, racing heart, blushing, excessive sweating, dry throat and mouth, trembling, and muscle twitches.[socialphobia.org]
Flushing
  • “If you find that every time you have to be around other people your heart rate is accelerating and you feel kind of flushed and nauseous or something like that, then that’s a different thing,” says Fisher.[rd.com]
  • Physical symptoms of anxiety include: Muscle tension or trembling Pounding heart Dizziness or light-headedness Sweating, feeling hot or flushed Tightness in chest or throat, breathing difficulties Trouble falling asleep, waking in the night or too early[caps.ucsc.edu]
  • […] problems Attention problems Problem-solving difficulties Worry Restlessness Fidgeting Task avoidance Rapid speech Irritability Withdrawal Perfectionism Lack of participation Failing to complete tasks Seeking easy tasks Stomach discomfort Rapid heart rate Flushing[nasponline.org]
  • They may blotch, flush, sweat, hyperventilate, tremble, and startle easily. Anxiety during adolescence typically centers on changes in the way the adolescent's body looks and feels, social acceptance, and conflicts about independence.[aacap.org]
  • But when you're having a full blown panic attack or anxiety attack , the symptoms — chest pain, flushing skin, racing heart, and difficulty breathing — can make you feel as though you're going to faint, lose your mind, or die.[everydayhealth.com]
Increased Sweating
  • sweating from the hands, feet, and axillae, [11] and they may be tearful, which can suggest depression. [12] Before a diagnosis of anxiety disorder is made, physicians must rule out drug-induced anxiety and other medical causes. [13] In children GAD[en.wikipedia.org]
Anxiety Disorder
  • Anxiety disorders can be developed as a child or as an adult and there are various forms of anxiety disorder that are slightly different.[symptoma.com]
  • Ninety-two children (age 7-12 years; 58% male; 87.0% White) with a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and/or social anxiety disorder participated in cognitive behavioral therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • On the other hand, social anxiety disorder has been termed "the neglected anxiety disorder" because its diagnosis is often missed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Social anxiety disorder is also easily distinguished from other anxiety disorders by the situations in which patients experience fear and avoidance; for the patient with social anxiety disorder, these situations always involve social interaction or scrutiny[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Moreover, 1.6% of people without somatic symptoms tested positive for generalized anxiety disorder, meanwhile 22.6% of people with four somatic symptoms tested positive for generalized anxiety disorder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fear
  • We identified nine patterns of anxious arousal across groups that we further clustered into three groups: fear habituation, fear plateau, and fear increase.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Three cases are described to illustrate that adults may experience: wide-ranging separation anxiety symptoms, such as extreme anxiety and fear, when separated from major attachment figures; avoidance of being alone; and fears that harm will befall those[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The findings rather imply that the fear of being laughed at is a symptom characteristic for both SAD and APD.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Next, we address how parenting behaviors may contribute to maintenance of fearful/anxious and avoidant reactions in children.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A person with a fear of flying who has no fear of other enclosed spaces would likely be considered to have a specific phobia.[anxietycoach.com]
Panic Attacks
  • Patients with a postpanic anxiety disorder (PPAD) have panic attacks less frequently than patients with a panic disorder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Group cognitive behavioural treatment focusing on preventing panic attacks and generalised anxiety did not appear to have an impact on core separation anxiety symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • You’ve had one or more panic attacks iStock/ljubaphoto Fisher emphasizes that one panic attack does not necessarily indicate symptoms of anxiety disorder, as panic attacks are a normal, evolutionary response to extreme fear.[rd.com]
  • The Problem with "Panic Attacks" Also, contrary to current psychiatric/psychological nomenclature, people with social anxiety do not have "panic attacks".[socialanxietyinstitute.org]
  • Panic attacks can occur with other psychiatric disorders. In panic disorders, however, the panic attacks return repeatedly and the person develops an intense fear of having another attack.[uhs.umich.edu]
Chronic Anxiety
  • Recent biological investigations have led to the formulation of hypotheses in relation to anticipatory and chronic anxiety in terms of changes in synaptic connections, enhancement of transmitter release as well as alterations in molecular configuration[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Some research suggests that family history can play a part in increasing the chances that a person will develop chronic anxiety.[timberlineknolls.com]
  • The Anxiety Trick The fears, phobias, and worry that you experience with chronic anxiety disorders often seem "irrational", and difficult to overcome. That's because there is a "Trick" to chronic anxiety problems.[anxietycoach.com]
  • Behavioral theories regarding the development of anxiety disorders (particularly specific phobias) suggest a two-step process that can lead to chronic anxiety. The initial reaction of fear/panic is learned through classical conditioning.[khanacademy.org]
Withdrawn
  • Children with SM scored higher than children with GAD on the CBCL1½-5 withdrawn scale and lower on the attention problems, aggressive behavior, and externalizing problems scales.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In extreme cases, called social phobia, the adolescent becomes very withdrawn, and though he wants to take part in social activities, he's unable to overcome intense self-doubt and worry.[aacap.org]
  • Perceptions People with social anxiety are many times seen by others as being shy, quiet, backward, withdrawn, inhibited, unfriendly, nervous, aloof, and disinterested.[socialphobia.org]
  • When someone frequently avoids situations that make him or her anxious, it can actually make the anxiety worse over time and can cause the person to feel isolated and withdrawn.[teenmentalhealth.org]
  • In the classroom, they may be withdrawn, not initiate interactions, select easy over difficult tasks, and avoid situations where they anticipate increased risk for failure.[nasponline.org]
Irritability
  • Thus, a modified single factor model allowing the error terms of items associated with relaxing difficulties and irritability to covary was an appropriate solution.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • At least 3 key symptoms out of a possible 6 are required to make a diagnosis: restlessness or nervousness, easy fatigability, poor concentration, irritability, muscle tension, or sleep disturbance.[bestpractice.bmj.com]
  • […] bowel syndrome Irritability There may be times when your worries don't completely consume you, but you still feel anxious even when there's no apparent reason.[mayoclinic.org]
  • Signs and Symptoms of Anxiety Feeling nervous, irritable or on edge Having a sense of impending danger, panic or doom Having an increased heart rate Breathing rapidly (hyperventilation), sweating, and/or trembling Feeling weak or tired Difficulty concentrating[adaa.org]
  • His friends have noticed that Mitchell is irritable and angry most of the time, but when they try to distract him or ask him to hang out he blows them off. Mitchell knows he cannot stop now.[anxietybc.com]
Dizziness
  • Dizziness embracing vertigo, unsteadiness and imbalance are common in the elderly, so is generalized anxiety disorder, which is a common psychiatric problem in later life.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In terms of tolerability, the most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events were nausea, dry mouth, dizziness, insomnia, somnolence, and headache.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Shakiness, dizziness, and sweating are all common symptoms for those who suffer from anxiety. You don’t want give yourself feelings of panic, when all you need is a snack. Meditation can help the brains ability to change.[foxnews.com]
  • Other common complaints are autonomic in nature, such as sweating, lightheadedness, palpitations, dizziness, and epigastric discomfort. [2] World Health Organization. International classification of diseases, tenth revision.[bestpractice.bmj.com]
  • In addition to anxiety, people often also have physical symptoms, including shortness of breath, dizziness, sweating, rapid heartbeat, and/or tremor.[merckmanuals.com]
Headache
  • In terms of tolerability, the most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events were nausea, dry mouth, dizziness, insomnia, somnolence, and headache.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A person with GAD may become exhausted by worry and experience headaches, tension or nausea.[myburke.org]
  • These kids often have headaches and stomachaches especially on school days, and the school nurse might know them well.[worrywisekids.org]
  • It is often accompanied by physical symptoms such as headaches, muscular tension, restlessness, heart palpitations, and stomach upset.[childrenshospital.org]
Difficulty Concentrating
  • Signs and Symptoms of Anxiety Feeling nervous, irritable or on edge Having a sense of impending danger, panic or doom Having an increased heart rate Breathing rapidly (hyperventilation), sweating, and/or trembling Feeling weak or tired Difficulty concentrating[adaa.org]
  • concentrating or mind going blank Irritability Sleep disturbances The definition of an anxiety disorder also includes an impairment of day-to-day functioning.[healthyplace.com]
  • Symptoms include increased arousal such as insomnia, irritability, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, or exaggerated startle response.[sparknotes.com]
Insomnia
  • In terms of tolerability, the most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events were nausea, dry mouth, dizziness, insomnia, somnolence, and headache.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms include increased arousal such as insomnia, irritability, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, or exaggerated startle response.[sparknotes.com]
  • Feelings of apprehension or dread Feeling tense and jumpy Restlessness or irritability Anticipating the worst Physical symptoms may include: Racing heartbeat or shortness of breath Upset stomach Sweating, tremors and twitches Headaches, fatigue and insomnia[myburke.org]
  • When withdrawing from the effects of substances, individuals may experience anxiety, restlessness, and insomnia as the brain attempts to recover its chemical balance.[americanaddictioncenters.org]
Sexual Dysfunction
  • dysfunction often accompanies anxiety disorders, although it is difficult to determine whether anxiety causes the sexual dysfunction or whether they arise from a common cause.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Although less often discussed among child psychiatrists, sexual dysfunction (decreased sex drive, anorgasmia) is another possible side effect of these medications and it is important to screen for this in older adolescents/young adults.[clinicaladvisor.com]
Premature Ejaculation
  • The most common manifestations in individuals with anxiety disorder are avoidance of intercourse, premature ejaculation or erectile dysfunction among men and pain during intercourse among women.[en.wikipedia.org]

Workup

When the chances of anxiety disorder being caused by a medical disorder is low or not presented clearly, initial laboratory studies to be carried out include:

  • Complete blood cell count
  • Urine drug screen
  • Chemistry profile
  • Urinalysis 
  • Thyroid function tests

To further exclude medical disorders, the following studies may be carried out:

  • Electroencephalography, lumbar puncture, and head/brain imaging
  • Tests for infection
  • Thyroid function
  • Arterial blood gas analysis
  • Electrolyte analysis
  • Chest radiography
  • Electrocardiography

Treatment

Treatment of anxiety disorders is made up of a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. The drugs of choice are antidepressant agents [9]. The preferred type these days are the newer agents as they have a much safer adverse effect profile as well as a higher ease of use than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other older tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs).

The outcome of treatment is determined by several factors which include the following:

  • Severity of diagnosis
  • Level of functioning prior to onset of symptoms
  • Degree of motivation for treatment
  • Level of support (eg, family, friends, work, school)
  • Ability to comply with medication and/or psychotherapeutic regimen

Prognosis

This disorder has a high rate of comorbidity with the abuse of drugs and alcohol as well as major depression. Therefore the increased morbidity and mortality that is common with anxiety disorders is related to this high rate of comorbidity [6]. Anxiety disorders may also contribute to morbidity and mortality via direct stimulation such as hypertension or cardiac arrhythmia or neuroimmune and neuroendocrine mechanisms.

Considerable evidences show that some variants of anxiety disorder leads to significant functional impairment as well as a decreased quality of life.

Severe cases of anxiety disorders may be further complicated by suicide, with or without secondary mood disorders such as depression [7].

Etiology

A known or unrecognised medical condition is often the first consideration when looking at the causes of anxiety disorders [3]. Most of the time however, anxiety disorder arises as a result of over-the-counter medication or substance abuse. Unfortunately, this is missed most of the time in diagnosis.

Genetic factors also significantly impact risk for anxiety disorders as is the case with environmental factors like early childhood trauma. The arguments on how genes and environment contributes to risk of anxiety disorder has led to the understanding that while some individuals are resilient to stress others are vulnerable to it and this leads to a form of anxiety disorder.

Epidemiology

Over 273 million or 4.5% of the world population had an anxiety disorder according to 2010 statistics. The condition is also seen most in females (5.2%) as against (2.8%) in males [4].

In Europe, Africa and Asia, the lifetime rates of anxiety disorders are between 9 and 16%. The yearly rates are also between 4 and 7%. In the U.S between 11 and 18% of adults develop the condition in a year and the lifetime prevalence is 29%.

Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

The major mediators of the symptoms synonymous with anxiety disorders in the central nervous system (CNS) include gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. Other peptides and neurotransmitters like the corticotropin-releasing factor may also be involved [5]. The autonomic nervous system, with emphasis on the sympathetic nervous system, mediates a good number of the symptoms.

It has been demonstrated with the aid of positron emission tomography (PET) that there is often increased flow in the right parahippocampal area as well as a reduction in serotonin type 1A receptor binding in the anterior and posterior cingulate and raphe of people with anxiety disorders (especially panic disorders).

Prevention

There are no guidelines for the prevention of anxiety disorder.

Summary

Anxiety disorders refer to a group of mental disorders that trigger fear and anxiety. The anxiety brings about worries about future events and fear brings about reactions (often inexplicable and exaggerated to onlookers) to current events [1]. A combination of these disorders can bring about physical symptoms like tachycardia and shakiness.

There are different forms of anxiety disorders with each of them varying in seriousness but they have identical presentations. The different types of anxiety disorders include panic disorder (most severe of the group), phobic disorder and generalised anxiety disorder.

Anxiety disorders are often genetic but they may also arise due to use of certain drugs like alcohol and caffeine. It may also be seen following withdrawal from certain drugs. In some cases, anxiety disorders occur in tandem with bipolar disorders, eating disorders and major depressive disorders [2].

With anxiety disorders, the emotions presented may range from simple nervousness to full blown bouts of terror. There are other psychiatric problems that show the same symptoms as anxiety disorders. Hyperthyroidism is the prime example.

Patient Information

There is nothing wrong with the occasional feeling of anxiety especially when your life is generally stressful. However, you are dealing with an anxiety disorder when it becomes severe and impedes your day to day activities.

Anxiety disorders can be developed as a child or as an adult and there are various forms of anxiety disorder that are slightly different. They often bring about similar symptoms and it takes the help of a professional to determine what variant you are dealing with.

Depending on the cause of the anxiety disorder, it may become a long-term challenge. In some cases it is accompanied by mood disorders. The condition often improves with medication and psychological counselling known as psychotherapy. Making lifestyle changes and using relaxation techniques can also bring about improvement in the condition.

References

Article

  1. Keeton CP, Kolos AC, Walkup JT. Pediatric generalized anxiety disorder: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management. Paediatr Drugs. 2009;11(3):171-83. 
  2. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: APA Press; 2013.
  3. Martinez RC, Ribeiro de Oliveira A, Brandão ML. Serotonergic mechanisms in the basolateral amygdala differentially regulate the conditioned and unconditioned fear organized in the periaqueductal gray. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. Nov 2007;17(11):717-24.
  4. Freitas-Ferrari MC, Hallak JE, Trzesniak C, Filho AS, Machado-de-Sousa JP, Chagas MH. Neuroimaging in social anxiety disorder: a systematic review of the literature. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. May 30 2010;34(4):565-80. 
  5. Katerndahl DA, Talamantes M. A comparison of persons with early-versus late-onset panic attacks. J Clin Psychiatry. Jun 2000;61(6):422-7. 
  6. Wittchen HU, Zhao S, Kessler RC, Eaton WW. DSM-III-R generalized anxiety disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994; 51:355.
  7. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, et al. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62:593.
  8. Kessler RC, Gruber M, Hettema JM, et al. Co-morbid major depression and generalized anxiety disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey follow-up. Psychol Med 2008; 38:365.
  9. Wittchen HU, Jacobi F, Rehm J, et al. The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2011; 21:655.
  10. Wittchen HU, Jacobi F. Size and burden of mental disorders in Europe--a critical review and appraisal of 27 studies. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2005; 15:357.

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Last updated: 2018-06-22 08:27