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Aortic Dilation


Presentation

  • Dilation of the aortic root or ascending aorta was present in 28.0% and 41.6% of patients, respectively. Moderate or severe aortic root or ascending aortic dilation (z-score 4) was present in 8.2% and 13.7%, respectively.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Anemia
  • Lamas and Eykyn 11 found that among 50 BAV patients with infective endocarditis, 86% had anemia with a mean hemoglobin level of 11.8 1.58 g/dL. Anemia can be a result of several disorders of the aorta and aortic valve.[scielo.br]
Accelerated Growth
  • Risk factors such as age, bicuspid aortic valves, blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, and aortic coarctation preferentially accelerated growth of the ascending aorta.[jcmr-online.biomedcentral.com]
Pleural Effusion
  • Pleural effusion as a post-operative sequela is seen in the left lung (white cross) Figure 3. CT scan reconstruction images of the aorta.[pubs.sciepub.com]
Respiratory Distress
Heart Murmur
  • The majority of people sent for a heart scan and found to have bicuspid aortic valve are sent for the scan due to the presence of a heart murmur . Patients may be sent for a heart scan due to some unrelated reason and found to have a bicuspid valve.[myheart.net]
  • Presentation See also the separate Heart Auscultation, Heart Murmurs in Children and Pulse Examination articles. AR is diagnosed by the presence of a characteristic diastolic murmur, exaggerated arterial pulsations and low diastolic pressure.[patient.info]
Heart Block
  • BACKGROUND: The clinical spectrum and underlying pathophysiology of isolated congenital complete heart block (CCHB) remain incompletely understood.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pupillary Abnormality
  • An ACTA2 mutation was suspected in light of the pupillary abnormality and aneurysmal PDA. Genetic testing confirmed a de novo Arg179His ACTA2 mutation.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
Mydriasis
  • At age 2 years she was referred to neurology for evaluation of transient spasticity in her lower extremities and bilateral congenital mydriasis. MRI showed diffuse white matter changes of unclear etiology.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]

Workup

  • I had been having chest pains and skipped beats and skipped beats with pain, i went to a cardio for the full workup. My bp was a little high resting 130/90 and a little high on the stress test..this runs in my family.[medhelp.org]
Pleural Effusion
  • Pleural effusion as a post-operative sequela is seen in the left lung (white cross) Figure 3. CT scan reconstruction images of the aorta.[pubs.sciepub.com]

Treatment

  • Both proper perioperative treatment and close monitoring are required for the successful surgery.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Groenink and colleagues randomly assigned 117 patients to remain on their medication and not receive further treatment. Another 116 patients were treated with losartan at a starting dose of 50 mg daily.[medpagetoday.com]
  • Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Aortic Valve Stenosis Other: diagnosed as bicuspid aortic valve Detailed Description: The growth rate of ascending aorta was calculated as annual growth rate using baseline and the last echocardiography.[clinicaltrials.gov]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis [ 2 ] Patients with acute severe AR have a poor prognosis without intervention, due to their haemodynamic instability. Patients with chronic severe AR and symptoms also have a poor long-term prognosis.[patient.info]
  • Treatment and prognosis As with other aortic aneurysms, increasing size results in an increased risk of rupture with the risk of rupture of 7% per year in patients with an aneurysm 6.0 cm 5.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Prognosis and risk factors in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis and their modulation by atorvastatin (20 mg). Am J Cardiol. 2008 Sep 15;102(6):743-8. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.04.060. Epub 2008 Jul 2.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • Aortopathies: etiologies, genetics, differential diagnosis, prognosis and management . Am J Med 2013 ; 126 : 670 – 8 . 10 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the genetic determinants of clinical disease expression .[academic.oup.com]
  • , even a normally functioning BAV can progress and damage gradually to reveal abnormal folding and creasing throughout the cardiac cycle, with more turbulent flow, as well as restricted motion (12) Aortopathy and coarctation have implications on the prognosis[escardio.org]

Etiology

  • Although the etiology and optimal management of aortic dilation associated with BAV remain the subject of debate, recent data have suggested that L-R and R-N cusp fusion phenotypes represent distinct pathological entities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiology True aneurysms can result from a wide variety of conditions: atherosclerosis (uncommon) connective tissue diseases Marfan syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Loeys-Dietz syndrome aortitis syphilis Takayasu disease rheumatoid arthritis ankylosing[radiopaedia.org]
  • MRI showed diffuse white matter changes of unclear etiology. At age 3 years she presented with transient inability to use her right arm or leg. MRI showed more extensive white matter abnormalities.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • Regarding etiology, structural abnormalities, such as a bicuspid aortic valve or prolapse of the AV may be seen.[healio.com]

Epidemiology

  • Presents revisions by a new authorship of experts in infectious disease, genetics and epidemiology, sports medicine, neurology, cardiac surgery, cardiac anesthesiology, and more.[books.google.ro]
  • Epidemiology [ 2 ] Rheumatic heart disease is the most common cause of AR throughout the world. In developed countries, congenital and degenerative valve abnormalities are the most common cause and the peak age of presentation is 40-60 years.[patient.info]
  • "Low prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm among 65-year-old Swedish men indicates a change in the epidemiology of the disease." Circulation 124.10 (2011): 1118-1123. CONTINUE SCROLLING FOR RELATED SLIDESHOW[medicinenet.com]
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY, NATURAL HISTORY, AND TYPES OF AORTIC ANEURYSMS Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), involving the infradiaphragmatic abdominal area, are the most common type of aneurysms.[nap.edu]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • We used cardiovascular MR to understand the pathophysiology better by examining the links between 3-dimensional flow abnormalities, aortic function, and aortic dilation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Additionally, it is important to understand the pathophysiologic basis of this association in order to determine the appropriate surveillance and monitoring.[academic.oup.com]
  • The study by Tzemos et al. ( 15 ) in this issue of the Journal provides an integrating view of the aforementioned pathophysiological factors in BAV patients.[content.onlinejacc.org]

Prevention

  • Additionally, we learned that rapid progression of aortic dilation should lead to immediate surgery to prevent more risky urgent intervention following the dissection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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