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Aphasia

Aphasic Syndromes


Presentation

  • CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe two patients with atypical focal cortical presentations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Results: Groups performed similarly on consistency of error location; however, adults with AOS demonstrated greater variability of error type in a blocked presentation condition only.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • By contrast, WAL presented with a domain-general deficit in fluent sequencing of novel thoughts.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The patient presented mixed aphasia, impairment of short-term memory and working memory, and dyscalculia. This case also presented severe cognitive and linguistic deficits.[doi.org]
Pressured Speech
  • Patient was admitted because of agitation, delusional behavior, and pressured speech.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Purpura
  • This might be due to a shift of the resting potential of the nerve cells in the brain ( Flöel 2010 ; Purpura 1965 ).[doi.org]
Normal Hearing
  • Method: Four groups of adult participants were tested: participants with no brain injury with normal hearing, participants with no brain injury with hearing loss, participants with brain injury with aphasia and normal hearing, and participants with brain[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dyslexia
  • Lambon Ralph ‘The role of plasticity-related functional reorganization in the explanation of central dyslexias’ Cognitive Neuropsychology , 28, 2, 2011, 65–108 46.[routledge.com]
  • Reading Treatments Multiple Oral Reading (MOR) —a treatment technique for individuals with acquired disorders of reading (dyslexia or alexia).[asha.org]
  • The association between semantic dementia and surface dyslexia in Japanese. Neuropsychologia, 47, 1061–1068. PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Gainotti, G. (2007).[springerlink.com]
  • Aphasia is usually accompanied by difficulties with reading (dyslexia/alexia) and writing (dysgraphia/agraphia) and may also co-occur with speech articulation difficulties ( apraxia of speech and dysarthria ).[encyclopedia.com]
Stroke
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aphasia is a common feature of stroke, affecting 21-38% of acute stroke patients and an estimated 1 million stroke survivors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Accurate aphasia diagnosis is important in stroke care.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Speech & Language Therapy in Practice Winter : 29–32 Google Scholar Plowman E, Hentz B, Ellis C ( 2012 ) Post-stroke aphasia prognosis: a review of patient-related and stroke-related factors.[doi.org]
  • […] hemorrhagic stroke Aphasia from ischemic stroke Aphasia, late effect of cerebrovascular disease Aphasia, late effect of embolic stroke Aphasia, late effect of hemorrhagic stroke Aphasia, late effect of intracerebral hemorrhage, nontraumatic Aphasia,[icd9data.com]
  • […] daily practice, all stroke patients, including those with a previous stroke, were analyzed.[doi.org]
Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage
  • A 47-year-old, right-handed man was diagnosed with an extensive right basal ganglia hemorrhage. He was bilingual, fluent in both Korean and Japanese. After his stroke, the patient presented with crossed aphasia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cerebral Calcification
  • BACKGROUND: Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), also known as Fahr's disease, is a rare disorder characterized by widespread cerebral calcifications, an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and clinical and genetic heterogeneity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • Rapid diagnostic workup is necessary if reperfusion therapy is considered. Ictal aphasia is a rare condition but has to be excluded. Perfusion imaging may differentiate acute ischemia from other causes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Epileptiform Activity
  • Our study highlights that a second EEG study might be necessary to confirm epileptiform activity, when clinical features and other tests suggest an epileptic origin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Burst Suppression
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this feasibility study was to assess whether combined intermittent theta burst suppression (iTBS) applied to the ipsilesional hemisphere and modified constraint-induced aphasia therapy (mCIAT) are safe and logistically feasible[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
White Matter Lesions
  • Ichiyo Kono, Mari Tanada and Yuki Kusano, A case with a linear white matter lesion connecting striatocapsular infarction and old cortical infarction, Rinsho Shinkeigaku, 49, 1, (17), (2009).[doi.org]

Treatment

  • Word-Finding Treatments Word-finding treatments are designed to improve word finding in spontaneous utterances.[asha.org]
  • Consequently, repetition is considered to be a target of treatment, as opposed to an approach to treatment for this syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This account of aphasia predicts that treatment of a fundamental ability, such as STM, which supports language function, should lead to improvements that generalise to content and tasks beyond those implemented in treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] tasks, measured pretreatment, immediately following treatment, and 3 months following treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • An early and specific treatment, avoiding or diminishing comorbidities, might significantly improve the prognosis of these patients. KEYWORDS: Aphasia; Diagnosis; Electroencephalogram; Prognosis; Status[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Conclusions: Patients with Broca's aphasia appear to have the best prognosis for improvement of language function in the first year of stroke.[doi.org]
  • Papers were identified through PubMed and MEDLINE search, with keywords such as: 'stroke', 'aphasia', 'post-stroke aphasia', 'factors that predict aphasia recovery', 'aphasia outcomes' and 'aphasia prognosis'.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Patients with Broca's aphasia appear to have the best prognosis for improvement of language function in the first year of stroke. The extent of improvement in patients with global aphasia is better than that of patients with Wernicke's aphasia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Despite a grim prognosis he underwent intensive aphasia therapy, lasting from 2001 to 2010, at the Center for Cognitive Rehabilitation of the Brain Injured at the Feuerstein Institute.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • PPA is not due to neoplastic, vascular, or metabolic etiologies nor to infectious disease (Mesulam, 2001; Rogers, 2004). Return to Glossary[asha.org]
  • Meningoencephalitis early in life, of any etiology, is a risk factor for development of subsequent sequelae, which may be of physical, psychiatric, behavioral or cognitive origin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, TEE should be reserved for patients in whom the etiology cannot be explained by routine testing.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Michael Hoffmann and Ren Chen, The Spectrum of Aphasia Subtypes and Etiology in Subacute Stroke, Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 22, 8, (1385), (2013). Lieve De Witte, Raf Brouns, Dimokritos Kavadias, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Peter P.[doi.org]
  • Speech Therapist and Professor of the Department of Speech Therapy, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, Brazil Address for correspondence ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Meningoencephalitis early in life, of any etiology, is a risk factor for development[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology Prevalence It is estimated that about 1 million people in the United States today suffer from aphasia. References Mesulam M, Johnson N, Krefft TA, et al. Progranulin mutations in primary progressive aphasia: the PPA1 and PPA3 families.[web.archive.org]
  • Epidemiology and Treatment Because the lvPPA has been only recently described (Gorno-Tempini et al. 2004 ), there is still little known about its epidemiology and treatment.[springerlink.com]
  • The epidemiology of aphasic and cognitive impairment in stroke. Brain. 1981; 104 : 117–128. Crossref Medline Google Scholar 9 Paolucci S, Antonucci G, Gialloreti LE, Traballesi M, Lubich S, Pratesi L, Palombi L.[doi.org]
  • The electrical stimulation seemed to enhance language training outcome in patients with chronic aphasia. [21] Epidemiology [ edit ] Many different populations can and do suffer from anomia.[en.wikipedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Instead we propose that seizures with impaired level of consciousness be described based on underlying pathophysiology.[doi.org]
  • It is suggested that the main pathophysiological mechanism of recovery is a cortical functional reorganization involving both hemispheres and that the participation of the various cortical areas in the recovery process is not uniformly efficient.[doi.org]
  • Schulz, Revisiting the role of the prefrontal cortex in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder., Psychological Bulletin, 10.1037/0033-2909.132.4.560, 132, 4, (560-581), (2006).[dx.doi.org]

Prevention

  • NHS Choices: Aphasia Provides details of symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment, complications and prevention.[curlie.org]
  • Given the close timely correlation with PBSCT, this episode appears to be caused by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and might possibly have been prevented by use of lower concentrations of DMSO.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In our replication, groups of individuals with aphasia (9 agrammatic and 9 anomic) plus 12 age-matched controls participated in a story completion task that included novel distracter stories to prevent rehearsal.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Anticoagulants do not dissolve clots but may prevent existing clots from becoming larger and causing more serious problems. They are often prescribed to prevent first or recurrent heart attack or stroke.[heart.org]
  • This is because there is no way of repairing and preventing ongoing brain injury.[belmarrahealth.com]

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