The apical myocardial infarction is a subtype of the acute coronary syndrome, caused by myocardial ischemia. This particular type of infarction is subject to debate, given that its electrocardiography description does not always correlate with echocardiography findings. V1 to V4 abnormalities were considered to denote anteroseptal suffering, but other studies showed that the involvement of anteroapical and apical segments manifests with ECG changes in the same territory.
The presentation of an apical myocardial infarction patient depends on whether the disease is acute or chronic. Acute patients have the usual complaints of cardiac ischemia patients. A strictly apical location implies that the mass of the affected myocardial tissue is relatively small, therefore the patient is unlikely to present in cardiogenic shock, but rather be a Killip class I case, with no evidence of heart failure. Pulmonary edema presentation is also unlikely. In return, the patient complains of chest pain that often radiates to the epigastrium or malaise. The pain is severe and lasts for 30 to 60 minutes. The character of the disease is different in different individuals, being described as a squeezing, burning, pressure, aching or sharp sensation. In other cases, myocardial ischemia can go unrecognized, as the patient believes he or she is suffering from indigestion or has no complaints whatsoever. This latter situation is more frequently seen in diabetes, dementia or elderly patients. Symptoms are more frequent during the early morning hours .
Patients with a previous apical myocardial infarction may have heart failure signs if the acute event was not strictly apical, but involved significant parts of neighboring walls and was complicated by aneurysm formation that occupies a significant ventricular territory. The anterior wall is more frequently implicated than the inferior and posterior ones.
Entire Body System
- Chest Pain
Case Presentation: A 29 year old African American male presented with non-radiating, mid-sternal chest pain, which was relieved by sitting up. His vital signs and physical examination were unremarkable. [shmabstracts.com]
A 51-year-old Japanese woman consulted the emergency room complaining of the sudden onset of anterior chest pain while shopping. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
A 66-year-old female presented to the emergency room with an episode of chest pain that lasted for a few minutes before resolving spontaneously. [hindawi.com]
The patient exhibited satisfactory progression without dyspnea, chest pain, or signs of pulmonary or systemic congestion and adequate blood pressure levels. [scielo.br]
- Heart Disease
Acute and Stable Ischemic Heart Disease: Clinical Presentation Number: 1297-316 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation [onlinejacc.org]
Myocardial Infarction: A Companion to Braunwald’s Heart Disease, by David A. Morrow, MD, is a comprehensive, hands-on resource that provides practical guidance from a name you trust. [books.google.com]
Coronary: · failure · insufficiency I24.9 Acute ischaemic heart disease, unspecified Excludes: ischaemic heart disease (chronic) NOS ( I25.9 ) I25 Chronic ischaemic heart disease Excludes: cardiovascular disease NOS ( I51.6 ) I25.0 Atherosclerotic cardiovascular [apps.who.int]
disease) 관상동맥 부전(Coronary failure) 관상동맥 기능부전(Coronary insufficiency) I24.9 상세불명의 급성 허혈성 심장 질환(Acute ischaemic heart disease, unspecified) 제외：허혈성 심장 질환(만성)(ischaemic heart disease (chronic)) NOS(I25.9) I25 만성 허혈성 심장 질환(Chronic ischaemic heart disease) [dic.impact.pe.kr]
Diagnosis Ischemic heart disease is typically associated with an underlying specific heart disease. In “stable” angina, chest pain with typical features occurs at predictable levels of exertion. [courses.lumenlearning.com]
- Retrosternal Chest Pain
The overall incidence is unknown, although it may be more prevalent than currently reported.(2) Although retrosternal chest pain is the most common symptom, some patients exhibit dyspnea, shock, or electrocardiographic alterations.(3) By definition, Takotsubo [scielo.br]
The first step in addressing a non-critical myocardial infarction patient should be obtaining the history of the disease and assessing risk factors  . Clinical examination should assess the skin (color and presence of diaphoresis), blood pressure, pulse (frequency, rhythm and equality in similar territories), heart and breathing sounds, the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, neck vein aspect, temperature (fever is present during the first two days of evolution ) and urinary output.
Once the suspicion of an acute myocardial infarction is raised, electrocardiography is usually the first investigation performed. As discussed above, the apical localization is rather difficult to define by this method, but modifications do appear in contiguous leads.
The protocol states that cardiac enzymes (troponin, myoglobin and creatine kinase) should be measured in a serial manner  . Recent guidelines advise that high-sensitive troponin I or troponin T assays should be used  . Brain natriuretic peptide or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide is only useful in chronic myocardial infarction patients for risk stratification and heart failure prognosis  .
The exact localization of the infarction area is stated by imaging methods. Echocardiography is a useful, readily available and reliable method that helps to evaluate wall motion abnormalities. Multidetector computed tomography and single-photon emission CT (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, although viable methods, are not routinely used in triage settings, but are useful in detecting ventricular aneurysms . Classic coronary catheterization has the advantage of offering clear diagnosis and being a therapeutic procedure, as well.
QT, RR, ST Intervals
- ST Elevation
In the acute period (6 9 h; range, 1 to 48 h), ST elevation was observed in 79 (90%) of the patients, including four patients with solitary ST elevation of limb-lead and 13 patients without right precordial (V 1, V 2 ) ST elevation. [onlinejacc.org]
The aim of the work was to assess apical rotation in acute ST-elevation MI. [mmj.eg.net]
He was treated as an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction with thrombolytics. There was no cardiac biomarker rise and coronary angiography did not reveal evidence of significant coronary arterial disease. [readbyqxmd.com]
Overnight, his subsequent EKG showed diffuse ST elevation and PR segment depression suggestive of pericarditis, and he was started on colchicine and NSAIDs. However, his chest pain did not resolve. His CRP was 0.2 mg/dL and ESR was 2 mm/hr. [shmabstracts.com]
Antiarrhythmic agents such as amiodarone and procainamide are used in the treatment of atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias . [hindawi.com]
Features an extensive treatment section that covers the latest drugs and most recent clinical trials of antiplatelet therapy, coronary revascularization, gene therapy, and approaches to reperfusion injury and ventricular remodeling. [books.google.com]
The remainder of the treatment involved a short stay at the ICU. [scielo.br]
Results: Main hypothesis of the present study is that can application of the management plans improve prognosis of the patients with AMI based on the results of prospective study model for AMI prognosis and surveillance index. [ndsl.kr]
While apical HCM has a better mortality prognosis than other forms of HCM, it is still associated with a relatively high rate of important cardiac events like atrial fibrillation or myocardial infarction. [hindawi.com]
[…] currently reported.(2) Although retrosternal chest pain is the most common symptom, some patients exhibit dyspnea, shock, or electrocardiographic alterations.(3) By definition, Takotsubo syndrome is a reversible acquired cardiomyopathy with favorable prognosis [scielo.br]
Brain natriuretic peptide or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide is only useful in chronic myocardial infarction patients for risk stratification and heart failure prognosis. [symptoma.com]
Time to treatment influences the impact of STsegment resolution on one-year prognosis, Circulation, 2001;104:2653–9. [ecrjournal.com]
Therefore, the precise clinical features and the etiologic basis of this syndrome remain unclear. [onlinejacc.org]
Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology. [icd10coded.com]
Although the etiology of tako-tsubo-like ventricular dysfunction is still unknown, our findings are compatible with a common etiology of tako-tsubo syndrome and acute myocardial infarction. See editorial Correspondence: Prof. J. Farré. [revespcardiol.org]
Although this mechanism is only one hypothesis about the cause of LVBS, as is also presented in several previous reports, we think this case is very rare and has implications for investigating the etiology of LVBS in the future. [jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com]
Contemporary epidemiologic data suggest the incidence of LV thrombus, detected using optimal imaging modalities, may be as high as 15% in patients with ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) and up to 25% in patients with anterior MI. [acc.org]
From an epidemiological perspective, takotsuba syndrome is most frequently observed in postmenopausal women (88.8% of cases). [scielo.br]
Silent myocardial ischemia: Epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. . Accessed Jan. 31, 2019. Jameson JL, et al., eds. Chest discomfort. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 20th ed. [mayoclinic.org]
Non-obstructive: This is also called myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINCOA) which includes atheromatous lesion, coronary spasm, myocardial bridging or coronary artery dissection, etc. Epidemiology Epidemiology of anteroseptal [statpearls.com]
We think this case may promote discussion regarding the pathophysiology of left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Conclusion We think this case may promote discussion regarding the pathophysiology of left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome. [jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com]
61 Nomura T...Tatsumi T 24716472 2014 13 Pim-1 mediated signaling during the process of cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction in ovine hearts. 61 Gao Y...Griffith BP 23899906 2013 14 Late repair of ischemic mitral regurgitation does not prevent [malacards.org]
The AHA/American Stroke Association 2014 stroke prevention guidelines recommend a similar duration, targeting a higher INR of 2.5. [acc.org]
Our Specialty Centers The Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease takes a multidisciplinary approach to helping you prevent heart disease and stroke—and that includes getting your cholesterol in check. [hopkinsmedicine.org]
Prevention The same lifestyle habits that can help treat myocardial ischemia can also help prevent it from developing in the first place. [mayoclinic.org]
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- Haaf P, Reichlin T, Corson N, et al. B-type natriuretic peptide in the early diagnosis and risk stratification of acute chest pain. Am J Med. 2011;124 (5):444-52.
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- Cremer PC, Khalaf S, Agarwal S, et al. Myocardial perfusion imaging in emergency department patients with negative cardiac biomarkers: yield for detecting ischemia, short-term events, and impact of downstream revascularization on mortality. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014; 7 (6):912-9.