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Arthropod Sting


Presentation

  • Papular urticaria Children with papular urticaria may present with numerous lesions on exposed areas, particularly the lower legs but also arms, cheeks and waistline.[dermnetnz.org]
  • Presentation on theme: "Insect and Arthropod Bites and Stings"— Presentation transcript: 1 Insect and Arthropod Bites and Stings Chapter 18 Insect and Arthropod Bites and Stings 2 Lesson Objectives (1 of 2) Describe the bites of poisonous spiders, including[slideplayer.com]
  • What you should be alert for in the history Patients with bug bites rarely present with the history of arthropod exposure and subsequent bites.[neurologyadvisor.com]
  • Patients with arthropod stings commonly present with atypical or dramatic reactions including large local reactions or anaphylaxis.[qa1.dermatologyadvisor.com]
Cervical Lymphadenopathy
  • Scratching and secondary infection associated with occipital and/or cervical lymphadenopathy. Some individuals exhibit obsessivecompulsive disorder or delusions of parasitosis after eradications of lice and nits. Infestation.[plasticsurgerykey.com]
Respiratory Insufficiency
  • Severe systemic reactions occur in individuals who are sensitized, with angioedema/generalized urticaria and/or respiratory insufficiency from laryngeal edema or bronchospasm and/or shock.[plasticsurgerykey.com]
Severe Abdominal Pain
  • abdominal pain 6 Spider Bites (3 of 8) Black widow spider What to do: Catch the spider for identification.[slideplayer.com]
Delusion
  • Delusions of parasitosis. Laboratory Examinations Microscopy. Nits 0.5-mm oval, whitish eggs ( Fig. 28-9 B). Nonviable nits show an absence of an embryo or operculum. Louse .[plasticsurgerykey.com]
  • Differential diagnosis includes: Atopic dermatitis Scabies Dermatitis herpetiformis Prurigo mitis Chickenpox True urticaria Delusions of parasitosis Papular drug eruption Polymorphous light eruption Management should emphasise identification of the source[dermnetnz.org]
Mononeuropathy
  • Clinical and electrophysiologic findings were consistent with a mixed axonal and demyelinating mononeuropathy, a monomelic multiple mononeuropathy, a mononeuropathy multiplex, a radiculoneuritis, and a distal symmetric polyneuropathy.[n.neurology.org]
Urinary Retention
  • Other symptoms, such as chills, urinary retention, constipation, hyperactive reflexes, and a burning sensation of the skin, are frequently reported. The black widow can control the amount of venom ejected from her venom glands.[insects.ucr.edu]

Workup

Demodex Folliculorum
  • Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis (demodicidosis). Environmental mites. Ticks ( Fig. 28-1 ) that feed on humans and are vectors for disease include blacklegged or Ixodes tick, lone star tick, and dog tick. Araneae.[accessmedicine.mhmedical.com]
  • Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis live in human hair follicles and sebaceous glands, causing demodicidosis (see Fig. 28-15 ). Figure 28-5.[plasticsurgerykey.com]
Trypanosoma Cruzi
  • Subfamily of reduviid bugs transmits Trypanosoma cruzi , the agent of Chagas disease. Fleas . Papular urticaria at bite site. Dog fleas often live in carpeting and bite exposed lower legs.[plasticsurgerykey.com]

Treatment

  • Urgent administration of epinephrine is the key to successful treatment of anaphylaxis. Local treatment and symptom management are sufficient in most insect bites and stings.[5minuteconsult.com]
  • Venomous bites and stings in Papua New Guinea: a guide to treatment for health workers and doctors: 327-346, 2005 Arthropod bites, stings, and infestations: their prevention and treatment .[eurekamag.com]
  • Although species-specific clinical findings and treatment will be discussed in further detail, there are several applicable general treatment principles. Local wound care is essential following arthropod assault.[accessmedicine.mhmedical.com]
  • The sooner treatment begins, the quicker and more complete the recovery. After treatment, some patients may still have muscle or joint aches and nervous system symptoms. This is called post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS).[patientsville.com]
  • Further Information TREATMENT In Ferrets Remove the sting, if there is one. ( B651 .9.w9) Use sodium bicarbonate for bee stings (weak alkali) and vinegar (weak acid) for wasp stings. ( V.w143 ) Alternatively apply an antihistamine. ( B652 .6.w6) Cold[wildpro.twycrosszoo.org]

Prognosis

  • What is the prognosis for an insect sting allergy? Most people recover from allergic reactions to insect stings without further complications.[medicinenet.com]
  • Insect Bites Prognosis Most people respond well to home or emergency treatment for bug bites or stings.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • The prognosis for treatment of “arboallergies” is not very promising. One option, immunotherapy, involves successive exposures to increasing concentrations of the offending allergen in an effort to desensitize the immune system.[genent.cals.ncsu.edu]
  • If the manifestations are local, prognosis is good and lesions can disappear spontaneously within 3 to 14 days [ 2, 4, 14 ]. Insect sting anaphylaxis can be very serious and have a dramatic follow-up, unless the patient is immediately treated.[jvat.biomedcentral.com]
  • Prognosis Mammals Prompt treatment and recognizing that even apparently minor bites can have serious consequences are the keys to a good outcome after a mammal bite. Infected bites can be fatal if neglected.[healthofchildren.com]

Etiology

  • Prevalence Widespread, with regional and seasonal variations Etiology and Pathophysiology Arthropods: four medically important classes Insects: Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, hornets, fire ants), mosquitoes, bed bugs, flies, lice, fleas, beetles, caterpillars[unboundmedicine.com]
  • Scabies Definition and Etiology Scabies is an ectoparasite infestation caused by the female mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis.[clevelandclinicmeded.com]
  • Etiology Typical arthropod reactions are caused by a Type-1 hypersensitivity response to arthropod saliva or arthropod mouthparts that come in contact with the patient’s tissue (Figure 7). Figure 7.[neurologyadvisor.com]
  • Etiology Typical arthropod reactions are caused by a Type-1 hypersensitivity response to arthropod saliva or arthropod mouthparts that come in contact with the patient's tissue ( Figure 7 ). Figure 7.[qa1.dermatologyadvisor.com]
  • Etiology and Epidemiology Subspecies. Pediculus Humanus Capitis . Sesame seed size, 1–2 mm. Feed every 4–6 h. Move by grasping hairs close to scalp; can crawl up to 23 cm/day. Lice lay nits within 1–2 mm of scalp. Nits are ova within chitinous case.[plasticsurgerykey.com]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology Incidence 28,087 cases of arthropod exposures were reported in 2015. This is a small fraction of arthropod encounters.[unboundmedicine.com]
  • BONIFAZI (2002) Epidemiology of Hymenoptera allergy. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2 (4): 341–346. BILÒ, M. B., F. BONIFAZI (2009) The natural history and epidemiology of insect venom allergy: clinical implications.[degruyter.com]
  • Etiology and Epidemiology Subspecies. Pediculus Humanus Capitis . Sesame seed size, 1–2 mm. Feed every 4–6 h. Move by grasping hairs close to scalp; can crawl up to 23 cm/day. Lice lay nits within 1–2 mm of scalp. Nits are ova within chitinous case.[plasticsurgerykey.com]
  • Antonicelli L, Bilo MB, Bonifazi F: Epidemiology of Hymenoptera allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;2:341–346. Ditto AM: Hymenoptera sensitivity: Diagnosis and treatment. Allergy Asthma Proc 2002;23:381–384.[karger.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Current concepts of therapy and pathophysiology in arthropod bites and stings. Part 2.[eurekamag.com]
  • , and moths Arachnids: spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks Chilopods: centipedes Diplopods: millipedes Four general categories of pathophysiologic effects: toxic, allergic, infectious, and traumatic Toxic effects of venom: local (tissue inflammation[unboundmedicine.com]
  • Pathophysiology and Natural History The mode of transmission varies among genera.[clevelandclinicmeded.com]
  • Stinging Insect, Arthropod Bite, Arthopod, Arachnid, Insect, Arthropod Dermatosis, Bug Bite See also Allergic Reaction Stinging Insect Allergy Bee sting Mosquito Bite Chigger Bite Flea Bite Bed Bug Tick Bite Spider Bite Scorpion Vector Borne Disease Pathophysiology[fpnotebook.com]
  • Pathophysiology IgE-mediated inflammation appears to be involved in many insect bite and sting reactions. Little work has been done to characterize the IgE-binding proteins in most species of insects.[neurologyadvisor.com]

Prevention

  • Venomous bites and stings in Papua New Guinea: a guide to treatment for health workers and doctors: 327-346, 2005 Arthropod bites, stings, and infestations: their prevention and treatment .[eurekamag.com]
  • Get the skills you need now with new information on global humanitarian relief and expedition medicine, plus expanded coverage of injury prevention and environmental preservation.[books.google.de]
  • How can arthropod bites and stings be prevented? The following simple measures can prevent arthropod stings and bites: Wear fully covering clothing. Keep windows and doors closed at night.[dermnetnz.org]
  • Currently, primary prevention by avoidance of stings and bites, and adequate instruction of sensitized individuals in the use of emergency drugs are mandatory.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Permethrin is another chemical that is often used on clothing to prevent mosquitoes, ticks, and other insects. It is more effective against ticks than DEET.[neurologyadvisor.com]

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