Asherman syndrome refers to a condition in which adhesions (synechiae) are present in the uterus resulting in various complaints, such as amenorrhea and infertility. The condition usually appears after an intrauterine trauma.
The prevalence of Asherman syndrome in the general population is not easy to ascertain but it can go so far as 21% in the group of women that had curettage after delivery . Whereas any intrauterine damage can cause adhesions and consequent uterine problems, the majority of adhesions are associated with problems of pregnancy , specifically with procedures of curettage performed after deliveries and abortions . The tendency for adhesions to form after repeated miscarriages or use of instrumentation in general on the postpartum uterus is also high  .
The adhesions in severe cases almost fill up the uterine cavity. The most frequent clinical manifestations are menstrual problems (hypomenorrhea and amenorrhea) and infertility or subfertility  . Some reports note a correlation between the extent of uterine damage and the severity of menstrual complaints  . A deficient function of the endometrium, which may be due to inadequate perfusion, hinders successful implantation and leads to infertility or repeated miscarriages . Subfertility may also be caused by the adhesions blocking the free advance of the sperm . Cyclical pain may result from blocked menstrual outflow, which may lead to retrograde menstruation.
Transvaginal ultrasound, while inexpensive and available in most settings, has low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing Asherman syndrome . However, sonohysterography performed on a uterus filled with saline solution has better sensitivity and predictive capability. Three-dimensional ultrasonography is able to confirm decreased volume of the uterine cavity .
Hysterosalpingography, a radiologic procedure which is considered a "historical" method  , could be helpful in the diagnosis, and the radio-opaque medium used allows the patency of the tubes to be examined . The presence of adhesions is indicated by sharp contours in the image, and if the inside of the uterus is completely occluded, the contrast material is unable to penetrate the uterus.
Hysteroscopy, which can be carried out in an office visit setting, is the gold standard for the diagnosis. It is the most precise method for visualization of the inside of the uterus and can show the location and shape of adhesions . Office hysteroscopy for the diagnosis and treatment of relatively mild adhesions has been shown to increase the pregnancy rate in previously unresponsive women .
Classification and grading of cases of Asherman syndrome are problematic because there are several systems in use with different scoring criteria. When the gynecological history of the patient is taken into account in addition to the results of imaging tests, the predictive value of the classification is improved  . Nevertheless, there is no universal agreement on which system to use .