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Aspergillus Mycetoma

Pulmonary Aspergillosis Mycetoma Type


Presentation

  • The authors present a case of a patient presenting with painful tearing which elicited further evaluation with CT imaging. This revealed a maxillary sinus fungus ball as the cause for the patient's tearing.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It presents as a chronic sinusitis with headache, nasal discharge and obstruction.[aspergillus.org.uk]
  • The authors present a case of a patient presenting with painful tearing which elicited further evaluation with CT imaging. This revealed a maxillary sinus fungus ball as the cause for the patient’s tearing.[ingentaconnect.com]
Plethora
  • […] appropriately selecting and interpreting laboratory tests, Small Animal Clinical Diagnosis by Laboratory Methods, 5th Edition helps you utilize your in-house lab or your specialty reference lab to efficiently make accurate diagnoses without running a plethora[books.google.com]
Congestive Heart Failure
  • Further history included moderate pulmonary hypertension, New York Heart Association Class III 2 congestive heart failure and an episode of mycobacterium avium complex that was successfully treated 3 years prior to the initial visit with us.[journal.copdfoundation.org]
Wound Infection
  • Infection tends to occur on the background of previous trauma, including wound infections at cannula and catheter sites and after venepuncture. A. flavus or Aspergillus terreus are the most frequent causes of primary infection.[patient.info]
Cough
  • The initial manifestations of the disease on admission included cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, pulmonary infiltrate, and renal failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • They can experience unintended weight loss, a chronic cough that produces mucus, the coughing up of blood, fatigue, and shortness of breath. Less often, fever or night sweats can occur.[rarediseases.org]
  • […] breath Kidney or liver failure Shock Bloody cough or massive bleeding from the lungs Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis may cause: Coughing accompanied by mucus or blood Wheezing or worsening of asthma Fever Increased mucus or sputum secretions[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • – you may cough up blood or lumps of mucus wheezing (a whistling sound when breathing) a high temperature of 38C or above weight loss If you already have a lung condition, your existing symptoms may get worse. a cough for more than 3 weeks a lung condition[nhs.uk]
  • Patients will usually have very minor symptoms, such as a mild cough, and little evidence of systemic inflammation. When symptoms progress, patients may present with weight loss, productive cough, fatigue and shortness of breath.[journal.copdfoundation.org]
Hemoptysis
  • The initial manifestations of the disease on admission included cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, pulmonary infiltrate, and renal failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] those with hemoptysis due to other causes.[jcm.asm.org]
  • Occasionally due to surrounding reactive vascular granulation tissue, hemoptysis may be present. Occasionally, erosion into a bronchial artery may lead to life-threatening hemoptysis 1 .[radiopaedia.org]
  • Amongst symptomatic, the most common symptoms include cough and hemoptysis.[thoracicmedicine.org]
  • In such cases surgical resection is indicated if significant hemoptysis occurs.[aacijournal.biomedcentral.com]
Nasal Discharge
  • It presents as a chronic sinusitis with headache, nasal discharge and obstruction.[aspergillus.org.uk]
  • Acute Invasive Fungal Sinusitis Symptoms Patients are usually hospitalised and are very sick with fever, cough, nasal discharge, headache and altered mental status.[earnosethroat.com.au]
Chronic Cough
  • They can experience unintended weight loss, a chronic cough that produces mucus, the coughing up of blood, fatigue, and shortness of breath. Less often, fever or night sweats can occur.[rarediseases.org]
  • A case report • A 71-year-old Chinese male was admitted with complaint of chronic cough and malaise for two months. He had been in Tucson, Arizona, USA, visiting for four months right before the symptoms occurred.[slideshare.net]
Pulmonary Disorder
  • Chandler . (2008) The Pathology of Pulmonary Disorders Due to Aspergillus spp. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine 132 :11, 1713-1714. Online publication date: 1-Oct-2009.[archivesofpathology.org]
Lacrimation
  • . * doi: 10.1097/IOP.0000000000000681 Case Reports: Lacrimal Abstract In Brief Author Information Authors Article Metrics Metrics Tearing is a frequently encountered chief complaint in an ophthalmologist’s office.[journals.lww.com]
  • Other reported sites of involvement include the upper extremities, trunk, buttocks, eyelids, lacrimal glands, paranasal sinuses, mandible, scalp, neck, perineum, and testes.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Arthritis
  • Arthritis Rheum. 1967 Aug; 10 (4):392–396. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] GERNEZ-RIEUX C, BIGUET J, VOISIN C, CAPRON A, TRAN VAN KY P. [Immunological diagnosis of bronchopulmonary aspergillomas.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Excitement
  • It provides a uniquely international and contemporary approach, reflecting the exciting developments of technique and instrumentation within this surgical field, built on technical innovation and medical and dental research.[books.google.com]

Workup

  • Certain associated atypical symptoms may warrant further workup. The authors present a case of a patient presenting with painful tearing which elicited further evaluation with CT imaging.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Diagnosis is often made as a result of an incidental finding on a chest X-ray or CT scan that may be performed as part of the workup for another unrelated condition.[en.wikipedia.org]
Pulmonary Infiltrate
  • The initial manifestations of the disease on admission included cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, pulmonary infiltrate, and renal failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pulmonary infiltrates do not respond to conventional antibiotics.[patient.info]
  • infiltrates, and central bronchiectasis.[jcm.asm.org]
  • Wheezing, eosinophilia, pulmonary infiltrates, and bronchial plugging are all manifestations of ABPA. The disease responds to treatment with corticosteroids and itraconazole.[hivinsite.ucsf.edu]
Aspergillus Clavatus
  • Similarly, Aspergillus clavatus secretes cytochalasin E, which is a potent and selective inhibitor of capillary endothelial cell proliferation in an experimental model ( 16 ).[jcm.asm.org]
  • Occasionally, Aspergillus clavatus and Aspergillus flavus cause human illness. Typically, inhalation of the fungal spores allows entry of the pathogen into the body and the organism has a predilection for the respiratory tract.[patient.info]
Aspergillus Fumigatus in the Sputum
  • Clinical and immunologic significance of Aspergillus fumigatus in the sputum.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Aspergillus Fumigatus in the Sputum
  • Clinical and immunologic significance of Aspergillus fumigatus in the sputum.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • This treatment resulted in remission of the vasculitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Aspergillus Fumigatus Fungus Ball in the Transplanted Lung after Single Lung Transplantation: Treatment with Cavernostomy and Withdrawal of the Mycetoma. Clin Surg. 2017; 2: 1837.[clinicsinsurgery.com]
  • Some uncommon pulmonary diseases are included: allergic alveolitis, because of the importance of early diagnosis, and sarcoidosis in order to discourage unnecessary treatment.[books.google.com]
  • A particularity of this case was an eosinophilia that disappeared after the treatment. Correlation with fungus infection was made probable by presence of a great amount of eosinophilic blood cells in hyperplastic mucosa involving the lesion.[lirias.kuleuven.be]
  • Conclusion: Since fungal sinusitis presentation is similar to chronic sinusitis and in the other hand, the incidence of aspergillosis is increasing, the early diagnosis and treatment is important especially when the clinical and paraclinical signs are[aspergillus.org.uk]

Prognosis

  • […] which is a hypersensitive asthmatic reaction to Aspergillus antigens invasive aspergillosis, which is an acute infection that produces septicemia, thrombosis, and infarction of virtually any organ, especially the heart, lungs, brain, and kidneys Varied prognosis[quizlet.com]
  • Prognosis CNPA has a significant mortality of up to 40%, even if promptly recognised and treated. It is easy to miss and, in such cases, carries a worse prognosis.[patient.info]
  • Treatment and prognosis An asymptomatic aspergilloma does not necessarily require treatment, and the cavity is essentially isolated from any systemic administration of antifungal 3 .[radiopaedia.org]
  • Voriconazole (VFEND) With proper treatment, the prognosis is general good as the disease responds well to both antibiotic and antifungal medications.[lymphedemapeople.com]
  • Treatment and prognosis The treatment is chosen only after distinguishing if the disease is an actinomycetoma or a eumycetoma.[afwgonline.com]

Etiology

  • The etiologic agents range from bacteria to fungi existing free in nature as soil or plant saprophytes gaining entrance into the tissues through abrasion or implantation. Actinomycetoma is caused by aerobic species of actinomycetes.[aspergillus.org.uk]
  • Root canal treated teeth with overextension of the root canal sealer or solid materials such as gutta-percha or silver cones into the sinus might be the main etiological factor for aspergillosis of the maxillary sinus in healthy patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Complete patients' characteristics and etiological agents are reported in Table 1 . In 2 cases, the infection was acquired in India, in 2 in Ethiopia, an in 1 case each in Senegal, Tanzania, Honduras, and Italy.[karger.com]

Epidemiology

  • Eumycetoma and actinomycetoma–an update on causative agents, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics and therapy. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2015;29:1873-1883. van de Sande WW.[afwgonline.com]
  • EORTC Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group , J Infect , 1998 , vol. 37 (pg. 173 - 180 ) 6 Systemic fungal infections caused by Aspergillus species: epidemiology, infection process and virulence determinants , Curr Drug Targets , 2005 , vol. 6[academic.oup.com]
  • The injuries were classified in five categories that pointed injuries such as pricking that had special importance in the epidemiology of mycetoma and the other included cuts, operated injuries, scratch and war injuries.[scialert.net]
  • Aspergilloma Epidemiology Aspergilloma has a variable prevalence depending on the amount of cavitating lung disease affecting a population.[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • […] accumulation of fungal hyphae Essential features Dense fungal growth with no tissue invasion Fruiting heads (sexual reproduction) may be seen Terminology Fungal ball, mycetoma, chronic noninvasive fungal sinusitis Sites Maxilla is most commonly affected Pathophysiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Author Contacts Gianluca Nazzaro, MD Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation Università degli Studi di Milano, I.R.C.C.S.[karger.com]
  • Pathophysiology The foot is the most common site of infection, and 70% of all mycetomas affect the foot.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Clinical, pathophysiologic, and microbiologic characterization of bronchiectasis in an aging cohort. Chest 108 : 955 -961. Sigler, L., L. M. de la Maza, G. Tan, K. N. Egger, and R. K. Sherburne. 1995 .[jcm.asm.org]
  • […] versus amphotericin B for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis , N Engl J Med , 2002 , vol. 347 (pg. 408 - 415 ) 8 Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in paediatric cystic fibrosis patients , Paediatr Respir Rev , 2006 , vol. 7 (pg. 67 - 72 ) 9 Pathophysiology[academic.oup.com]

Prevention

  • These problems are addressed and measures of prevention such as smoking cessation are included.[books.google.com]
  • […] of HIV HIV Transmission and Prevention in Specific Populations Systematic Review of HIV Behavioral Prevention Research in African Americans Lynae A.[hivinsite.ucsf.edu]
  • Risk & Prevention Mycetoma is a health problem in equatorial regions of Africa, Latin America, and Asia known as the “mycetoma belt.”[cdc.gov]
  • Prevention The best prevention of aspergillosis is a healthy way of life that is capable of normal immune system.[medical-enc.com]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Disease condition caused by species of aspergillus and marked by inflammatory granulomatous lesions in the skin, ear, orbit, nasal sinuses, lungs, and sometimes in the bones and meninges.[icd10data.com]

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