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Atrial Septal Defect 9



  • […] if the condition was present at the time of inpatient admission.[icd.codes]
  • The treatment of ASD patients is mostly dependent on the age at presentation, existence of symptoms of congestive heart failure and the degree of the shunt.[aerjournal.com]
  • Session Title: FIT Clinical Decision Making: Interventional Cardiology 4 Abstract Category: Interventional Cardiology Presentation Number: 1261-156 2019 American College of Cardiology Foundation[onlinejacc.org]
  • The approach to closure of multiple ASDs presents unique challenges in each case.[invasivecardiology.com]
  • A Journal on Sports Medicine Official Journal of the Italian Sports Medicine Federation Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus Impact Factor 0,202 eTOC CASE REPORTS Copyright 2015 EDIZIONI MINERVA[minervamedica.it]
  • Paciaroni et al(25) performed a prospective observational study on 238 consecutive patients with cryptogenic stroke and PFO treated at 13 Italian centers.[bcidaho.com]
Disturbance of Growth
  • […] cardiomyocyte growth and differentiation during atrial septum formation. [5] Epidemiology The three major types of atrial septal defect (ASD) account for 10% of all congenital heart disease and as much as 20-40% of congenital heart disease presenting[emedicine.medscape.com]
Ejection Murmur
  • murmur at the left sternal border, more evident in the third and fourth left intercostal space, which extended to the midaxillary line.[minervamedica.it]
  • Soft systolic ejection murmur (Grade 2 to 3) in the pulmonary area at the upper left sternal border. A diastolic rumble over the left lower sternum because of increased flow through the tricuspid valve in those with a large shunt.[patient.info]
  • Upon auscultation of the heart sounds, a systolic ejection murmur may be heard that is attributed to the pulmonic valve, due to the increased flow of blood through the pulmonic valve rather than any structural abnormality of the valve leaflets.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] cardiac chambers and connections 2016 2017 2018 2019 Billable/Specific Code POA Exempt Applicable To Cor binoculare biventriculare Q21.1 Cyanosis R23.0 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code R23.0 Cyanosis 2016 2017 2018 2019 Billable/Specific Code Type 1 Excludes acrocyanosis[icd10data.com]
Mid-Diastolic Murmur
Skeletal Dysplasia
  • Ellis van Creveld syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with skeletal dysplasia characterized by short limbs, short ribs, postaxial polydactyly, dysplastic nails and teeth, and a common atrium, occurring in 60% of affected individuals[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • PFO demonstrated with saline agitation[echocardiografie.nl]
  • Initial transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) was normal, however a follow up TTE showed significant atrial R- L shunt with agitated saline injection.[onlinejacc.org]
  • Contrast echocardiography with injection of agitated saline through a peripheral venous line can assist in the diagnosis of ASD in patients with restricted acoustic windows. [ 8 ] MRI and CT Cardiac MRI can be used to accurately define the anatomy of[patient.info]
  • In B, the agitated saline bubble test, performed through the venous sheath, showing a great transit of microbubbles through the defect during normal breathing.[scielo.br]
  • If agitated saline is injected into a peripheral vein during echocardiography, small air bubbles can be seen on echocardiographic imaging. It may be possible to see bubbles travel across an ASD either at rest or during a cough.[marmur.com]
Intracranial Hemorrhage
  • He had a recent intracranial hemorrhage and remained at high risk of bleeding with anticoagulation. He had undergone percutaneous atrial septal defect (ASD) closure 9 years earlier for a secundum ASD with right ventricular dilation.[interventions.onlinejacc.org]
Neurologic Manifestation
  • Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: cerebral ischemia and neurologic manifestations. Neurology . 2000 ; 55 : 959–964.[stroke.ahajournals.org]
  • […] filter of the pulmonary capillary system, as in Rendu-Weber-Osler disease. 5 Case Report A 14-year-old girl, with personal and familial history of migraine without aura, first presented in 1999 with 3 episodes of transient left-sided hemiparesis and paresthesia[stroke.ahajournals.org]


  • […] embolism resulting in a right to left shunting of blood [36] Treatment [ edit ] Patent Foramen Ovale [ edit ] Most patients with a PFO are asymptomatic and do not require any specific treatment. [37] However, those who develop a stroke require further workup[en.wikipedia.org]
Sinus Opacification
  • The diagnosis can be made by injecting contrast agent into left upper extremity; coronary sinus opacification precedes right atrial opacification. Genetics ASD may occur on a familial basis.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Incomplete Right Bundle Branch Block
  • Decisive for the request for second level tests was the basic electrocardiogram, which presented a right ventricular conduction delay of the incomplete right bundle branch block type, with rsR’ pattern in lead V1 and auscultation, performed systematically[minervamedica.it]
  • ECG incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB morphology with QRS duration between 110-120 ms) increased specificity with crochetage sign in the inferior (II, III, aVF) leads right precordial (V1-3) "defective T waves" describes biphasic morphology,[radiopaedia.org]
  • Incomplete right bundle branch block and right ventricular enlargement were found in all cases, as was cardiomegaly with increased vascular markings were found in all cases.[paediatricaindonesiana.org]
  • Investigations ECG ECG may be normal in infants and children with small shunts Typical findings include a tall P wave indicating right atrial enlargement, incomplete right bundle branch block pattern (rsR' in V1), and right axis deviation.[patient.info]
  • A common finding in the ECG is the presence of incomplete right bundle branch block, which is so characteristic that if it is absent, the diagnosis of ASD should be reconsidered.[en.wikipedia.org]


  • […] conventional surgery as the only treatment option.[scielosp.org]
  • Many children with congenital heart defects don't need treatment, but others do. Treatment can include medicines, catheter procedures, surgery, and heart transplants.[icdlist.com]
  • What medications are used in ASD treatment? Drugs may be required in cases of heart rhythm disorders and/or fluid overload.[agileglobalhealth.com]
  • […] with that of medical treatment in an age-matched control group with unrepaired defects.[nejm.org]


  • When these differences are taken together, they do not indicate a more favorable prognosis for one group over the other.[nejm.org]
  • Prognosis [ 18 ] Isolated atrial septal defects repaired in childhood have excellent prognosis with survival similar to that of the general population.[patient.info]
  • […] vessels visible to the periphery of the film eventual signs of pulmonary arterial hypertension chamber enlargement right atrium right ventricle note: left atrium is normal in size unlike VSD or PDA note: aortic arch is small to normal Treatment and prognosis[radiopaedia.org]
  • In addition to the high surgical mortality and morbidity risk, closure of a defect in the latter situation may worsen the prognosis.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • […] majority of patients; incidence of these conditions increases with age. 9 Irreversible pulmonary hypertension develops in less than 10% of those with isolated unrepaired ASD. 6 Frequent respiratory infections may be seen in children. 5 Diagnosis and Prognosis[uspharmacist.com]


  • Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology.[icd10coded.com]
  • The etiology of the ASD is largely unknown. While the majority of the book addresses closure of ASDs, one chapter in particular focuses on creating atrial defects in the fetus with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. ...[intechopen.com]
  • In those where a comprehensive evaluation is performed and an obvious etiology is not identified, they are defined as having a cryptogenic stroke.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Ongoing controversies regarding etiology, diagnosis, treatment There are two dominant controversies regarding ostium secundum ASDs.[clinicaladvisor.com]


  • Epidemiology Male : Female 1:2 Most commonly seen in children 8.[slideshare.net]
  • The epidemiological aspects of congenital heart disease in central and southern district of Iran. Adv Biomed Res. 2014; 3 : 233[ DOI ][ PubMed ] 2. Porter CBJ, Edwards W.[ijp.tums.pub]
  • Epidemiological data on individuals with congenital cardiopathy were obtained from Brazilian studies published in the literature 1 1. Rossi RIF, Manica JLL, Cardoso CO.[scielosp.org]
  • The Danish Civil Registration System as a tool in epidemiology. European journal of epidemiology 29, 541–549, (2014). 18. Nyboe, C., Karunanithi, Z., Nielsen-Kudsk, J. E. & Hjortdal, V. E.[nature.com]
  • Epidemiology [ 1 ] ASDs are the third most common congenital heart disease and occur as an isolated anomaly in 5% to 10% of all congenital heart defects.[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • Pathophysiology 6. Clinical features 7. Investigations 8. Risk Factors 9. Management 3. Introduction  Septal defects are more common eg of non cyanotic heart disease. Most common congenital heart disease in adults.[slideshare.net]
  • Sinus venosus defects, coronary sinus defects and primum ASDs (partial atrioventricular septal defect [AVSD]) are beyond the scope of this article, but many of the pathophysiological and management principles still apply.[aerjournal.com]
  • The objective of this contemporary review is to focus on the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the interatrial shunt.[jtd.amegroups.com]
  • Rarely, a defect can extend posteriorly and inferiorly, approaching the site of inferior vena cava entrance into the right atrium. [2] Pathophysiology A secundum atrial septal defect can result from inadequate formation of the septum secundum so that[emedicine.medscape.com]


  • What about preventing endocarditis? Most children with an ASD are not at increased risk for developing endocarditis.[heart.org]
  • A health care provider may recommend the atrial septal defect be closed for a child with a large atrial septal defect, even if there are few symptoms, to prevent problems later in life.[cdc.gov]
  • For a while after the procedure, your child might also need antibiotics before certain medical and dental procedures to help prevent an infection of the heart valves.[hopkinsmedicine.org]
  • Prevention In most cases, atrial septal defects can't be prevented. If you're planning to become pregnant, schedule a preconception visit with your health care provider. This visit should include: Getting tested for immunity to rubella.[mayoclinic.org]

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