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Atypical Mycobacteria


Presentation

  • These unilateral nodes seldom present a treatment problem since surgical excision is curative. Occasionally, however, the affected cervical node lies adjacent to the facial nerve and/or its marginal mandibular branch.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here we present a case of a sevenmonth- old boy presented with multiple neck and axillary swellings. The patient was treated medically and then came back with a relapse. Eventually, he was diagnosed with IL-12 deficiency.[alliedacademies.org]
Malaise
  • Systemic symptoms include malaise, fatigue, and weight loss in advanced disease. [15] The diagnosis of M. abscessus pulmonary infection requires the presence of symptoms, radiologic abnormalities, and microbiologic cultures.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Symptoms No typical Manifestations• Fever• Weight loss• Enlarged lymph glands• Diarrhea• Sweating, excessive -- night sweats• Fatigue• General discomfort, uneasiness or ill feeling (malaise)• Cough• Shortness of breath (dyspnea)• Skin lesions• Joint pain[slideshare.net]
Recurrent Otitis Media
  • Our aim is to focus the attention of the ENT specialist and the pediatrician on these pathological agents in unilateral recurrent otitis media. The case reports illustrate the importance of histologic and microbiologic examination.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Collapse
  • Plain radiographs revealed vertebral collapse of Th12, scoliosis, and kyphosis. Two-stage surgical treatment (first: posterior instrumentation; second: anterior debridement and bone graft) was performed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Soft Tissue Mass
  • The second patient presented with a tender right frontotemporal soft-tissue mass; a computed tomogram disclosed that it extended through the frontal bone to the frontal sinus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Exposure to Contaminated Water
  • Some general methods to help prevent Atypical Mycobacterial Infections include: Avoiding exposure to contaminated water, especially in pools or spas Treating open wounds and cuts Making sure to use disinfected needles or surgical tools Washing/cleaning[dovemed.com]
Persistent Cough
  • The most common symptoms include a persistent cough, fatigue, weight loss, night sweats, and occasionally shortness of breath (dyspnea) and coughing up of blood (hemoptysis).[rarediseases.org]

Workup

  • In cases of lung infection, a diagnostic workup will include a chest x ray and tests on discharges from the respiratory passages (sputum).[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • The patient was transferred for further workup and treatment of combined MTB and MAC infection. Two months later, the patient was diagnosed with IL-12 deficiency.[alliedacademies.org]

Treatment

  • Recognition of the characteristic features of AMB adenitis may permit early diagnosis and appropriate surgical treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • The more widespread application of multiple simultaneous skin tests for atypical mycobacteria may improve the diagnosis and prognosis of this disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis Because drug therapy is not easily effective, the overwhelming infections caused by these mycobacteria in AIDS patients can be fatal.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • […] and drainage are associated with a high recurrence rate and a higher rate of complications such as fistula, and excessive scarring. [6] If complete excision of affected lymph nodes is performed as the first surgical procedure, there is an excellent prognosis[e-ijd.org]
  • Treatment and prognosis Detailed guidelines on the management approach are available 12.[radiopaedia.org]

Etiology

  • Atypical mycobacteria might play a role in the etiology in a minority of our patients, but more cases and other potential etiologic agents need to be studied.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • (Etiology) Atypical Mycobacterial Infections are caused by any species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Up to 13 distinct species of atypical mycobacteria are known to cause human infection.[dovemed.com]
  • The pericardial effusion was suggestive of tuberculous origin, however, lack of response to conventional anti-tuberculous therapy raised suspicion about the etiology of the effusion being non-tuberculous.[ispub.com]

Epidemiology

  • Consequently, cutaneous testing for this complex in epidemiological surveys only requires a skin test with one of the members.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The aim has not been to produce an exhaustive account of mycobacteria and mycobacterioses, but rather to concentrate on salient points and particularly on those most generally useful to a diverse group of interests: mycobacteriology, pathology, epidemiology[books.google.com]
  • Epidemiological investigation of infections due to Alcaligenes species in children and patients with cystic fibrosis: use of repetitive-element sequence polymerase chain reaction. Clin Infect Dis 1995; 20: 836-841.[cfmedicine.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Introduction Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections Epidemiology demographics often found in marine workers location hand and wrist are involved in 50% of cases risk factors immunocompromised host Pathophysiology incubation average incubation period[orthobullets.com]
  • Mycobacterium peregrinum can result in skin infections. [2] Pathophysiology Infections with atypical mycobacteria usually occur in immunocompromised hosts due to host immunity and resistance factors.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • The pathophysiology of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease in AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1999; 179: S461-465. Vankayalapati R, Wizel B, Samten B, et al. Cytokine profiles in immunocompetent persons infected with Mycobacterium avium complex.[alliedacademies.org]

Prevention

  • Prevention People with HIV infection can prevent or delay the onset of MAC by taking disease-preventing drugs such as rifabutin.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Can People Prevent Atypical Mycobacterial Infections? Because mycobacteria are common in the environment, these infections are difficult to prevent, especially in people with weakened immune systems.[humanillnesses.com]
  • Specific prevention options for Atypical Mycobacterial Infections depend on the infecting species type.[dovemed.com]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002 USPHS/IDSA guidelines for prevention of opportunistic infections in persons with HIV. MMWR. 2002. [Full Text]. El-Sadr WM, Burman WJ, Grant LB, et al.[emedicine.medscape.com]

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