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Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome Type 3


  • In this present study, the translocation t(4;11)(q25;pter) was seen.[casereports.in]
  • Chromosomes, which are present in the nucleus of human cells, carry the genetic information for each individual. Human body cells normally have 46 chromosomes.[rarediseases.org]
  • As visual function can be preserved with early diagnosis, the knowledge of this presentation is important for the ARS patients.[jomfp.in]
  • If photophobia is present in patients with corectopia and polycoria, contact lenses may be used to cover the holes in the iris. Prognosis Prognosis is good, particularly in the absence of glaucoma.[orpha.net]
  • Back to: « Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome Symptoms of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome type 3 Clinical features : Imported from Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) Abnormality of head or neck Concave nasal ridge Hypertelorism Microdontia Partial congenital absence of teeth[familydiagnosis.com]
  • Microdontia, hypodontia were present but redundant umbilical fold was absent. He was operated for congenital heart disease at the age of 5 years. Diagnosis of Axenfeld-Riger syndrome with NVG was made.[casereports.in]
  • Dental abnormalities may include microdontia or hypodontia. Hypospadias in males, anal stenosis, pituitary abnormalities and growth retardation may also be observed.[orpha.net]
  • Prostaglandin analogues may be used to lower IOP. [21] [22] Alpha-2 agonists, especially brimonidine, is contraindicated in children less than 2 years of age secondary to their association with potentially serious apnea, bradycardia, hypotension, hypotonia[eyewiki.aao.org]
Rubeosis Iridis
  • This condition is also characterized by microsperophakia, miosis, and poor papillary dilation.[eyewiki.aao.org]


  • More Types of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome type 3 » Genetics of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome type 3 Treatments See also the following treatment articles: Treatments for Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome Names and Terminology References Source: GTR (NCBI/NIH): ncbi.nlm.nih.gov[familydiagnosis.com]
  • Treatment - Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome The treatment of Rieger syndrome is symptomatic and supportive and prostheses are used for dental malformations. Also, Genetic counseling may be of benefit for patients and their families.[checkorphan.org]
  • In case of glaucoma, the goal of treatment is to reach low IOP. Surgery is performed if eye drops are not sufficient in lowering IOP.[orpha.net]


  • Diagnosis and Prognosis: Your eye doctor is the one to diagnose this condition.[disorders.eyes.arizona.edu]
  • Diagnosis - Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome Prognosis - Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome Not supplied. Treatment - Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome The treatment of Rieger syndrome is symptomatic and supportive and prostheses are used for dental malformations.[checkorphan.org]
  • Prognosis Prognosis is good, particularly in the absence of glaucoma. The documents contained in this web site are presented for information purposes only.[orpha.net]


  • Etiology Patients with ARS have been found to have mutations in the transcription factor genes PITX2 (4q25) and FOXC1 (6p25). A large number of different mutations have been identified but there is no clear genotype-phenotype relationship.[orpha.net]
  • However, a family has been reported with a severe 'Axenfeld-Rieger phenotype' in which a digenic etiology may have been responsible: patients had mutations in both FOXC1 and PITX2.[disorders.eyes.arizona.edu]


  • Summary Epidemiology The syndrome has an estimated prevalence of 1/200,000. Clinical description The clinical manifestations of ARS are highly variable. Features can be divided into ocular and non-ocular findings.[orpha.net]
  • Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 2004;32:217-226. G reen PD, Hjalt TA, Kirk DE, Sutherland LB, Thomas BL, Sharpe PT, et al. Antagonistic regulation of Dlx2 expression by PITX2 and Msx2: implications for tooth development.[casereports.in]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • Axenfeld syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant [2] disorder, which affects the development of the teeth, eyes, and abdominal region. [3] Pathophysiology [ edit ] The molecular genetics of Axenfeld syndrome are poorly understood, but center on three genes[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] follows: Detection of any of these mutations can give patients a clear diagnosis and prenatal procedures such as preimplantation genetic diagnosis, Chorionic villus sampling and Amniocentesis can be offered to patients and prospective parents. [11] Pathophysiology[ipfs.io]
  • Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of glaucoma associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome. Int Ophthalmol. 2018 Feb. 38 (1):409-416. [Medline]. Kargi SH, Koc F, Biglan AW, Davis JS. Visual acuity in children with glaucoma.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Pathophysiology Normal corneal development depends on neural crest migration which occurs in 3 distinctive waves during embryogenesis to produce the structures of the anterior chamber. This typically occurs during the 7th week of gestation.[eyewiki.aao.org]


  • Rieger syndrome, Iridogoniodysgenesis with somatic anomalies, Goniodysgenesis hypodontia, RGS Symptoms - Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome Causes - Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome Prevention - Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome Not supplied.[checkorphan.org]
  • The prognosis is excellent in the absence of glaucoma but monitoring via periodic eye examinations is important throughout life as glaucoma can appear at any time and must be treated to prevent blindness.[disorders.eyes.arizona.edu]
  • As glaucoma may manifest only in late childhood or even adulthood, these patients must be closely followed up for glaucoma even after they have been managed for the correction of eyelid abnormalities of BPES in order to prevent irreversible sight-threatening[ijo.in]
  • Management of these patients should include screening for and management of glaucoma, prevention and treatment of amblyopia, and optimization of lenses for visual function or photophobia and lifelong monitoring of the health of their eyes.[webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu]
  • Primary prevention Peters’ anomaly is an in utero abnormality of multiple gene loci that cause anterior segment dysgenesis. No primary prevention has been described for this disorder.[eyewiki.aao.org]

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