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Babesia


Presentation

  • present or known to be present OIE Handistatus, 2005 Tunisia No information available OIE Handistatus, 2005 Uganda Reported present or known to be present OIE Handistatus, 2005 Zambia Reported present or known to be present OIE Handistatus, 2005 Zimbabwe[cabi.org]
  • The present study provides the first molecular detection of Hepatozoon sp. and piroplasmids in small mammals in Brazil.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Results presented prove the power of this combination platform in discriminating the specific targets among the life-cycle processes of the parasite-invasion, development/proliferation and egress.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Coinfection with Lyme disease or anaplasmosis may complicate the clinical presentation and predispose the patient to more severe disease.[columbia-lyme.org]
  • Abstract A 50-year-old patient presented with severe fatigue, fevers, unexplained weight loss, and night sweats of two-week duration. Within two days, an episode of intravascular hemolysis was noted.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hypersomnia
  • Of the 32 confirmed cases, 21 (66%) presented with a fever, 13 (41%) with a headache, 12 (38%) with myalgia or arthralgia, and three (9%) with chills. 14 (44%) patients had fatigue, eight (25%) had dizziness, and eight (25%) had hypersomnia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cape Verde
  • Botswana Reported present or known to be present OIE Handistatus, 2005 Burkina Faso No information available OIE Handistatus, 2005 Burundi Reported present or known to be present OIE Handistatus, 2005 Cameroon Disease not reported OIE Handistatus, 2005 Cape[cabi.org]
Collapse
  • The clade of Babesia sp. infecting rodents, macaque, and human has been collapsed. The evolutionary distance is shown in the units of the number of base substitutions per site.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dog Bite
  • It has been suggested that other non-vectorial modes of natural transmission described for canine Babesia species, including transplacental transmission and direct infection by dog bites, as in the case of Babesia gibsoni [ 1, 25 ], can also be valid[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pruritic Rash
  • Six (19%) patients had an erythematous non-pruritic rash around the tick-bite site and two (6%) had lymphadenopathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Larva Migrans
  • African Sleeping Sickness, Sleeping Sickness) Trypanosomiasis, American (Chagas Disease) Visceral Larva Migrans (Toxocariasis, Toxocara Infection, Ocular Larva Migrans) Waterborne Diseases Whipworm Infection (Trichuriasis, Trichuris Infection) Zoonotic[cdc.gov]

Workup

Plasmodium Falciparum
  • The test had a reasonably fast turnaround time and allowed detailed visualization of the organisms and reliable distinction from Plasmodium falciparum.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Plasmodium falciparum invades human red blood cells (RBC), while Babesia divergens infects bovine and, occasionally, human RBC.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • No cross-reactivity with DNA of Babesia hosts or Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii was observed. The lack of cross-reactivity with P. falciparum DNA might allow using the assay in endemic malaria areas.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The genome of B. microti is the smallest among apicomplexan parasites sequenced to date, and about 28% the size of the Plasmodium falciparum genome [5].[doi.org]
  • It is important to pay attention to particular morphologies of Babesia in blood smears, because of its substantial similarity to the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum.[en.wikipedia.org]
Toxoplasma Gondii
  • No cross-reactivity with DNA of Babesia hosts or Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii was observed. The lack of cross-reactivity with P. falciparum DNA might allow using the assay in endemic malaria areas.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We used N. caninum –specific PCR to test 600 clinical samples from patients with toxoplasmosis signs but Toxoplasma gondii –negative PCR results. We did not detect N. caninum DNA, demonstrating it is an unlikely opportunistic zoonotic agent.[cdc.gov]
Sarcoptes Scabiei
  • Fox-derived Sarcoptes scabiei mites caused an outbreak of mange on a farm in Switzerland in 2018. Pruritic skin lesions suggestive of S. scabiei mite infestation developed in 4 humans who had direct contact with affected farm animals but not foxes.[cdc.gov]

Treatment

  • Treatment for Babesia was begun and the patient improved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract This report summarizes what we believe to be the first verifiable case of a significant and progressive motor neuron disease (MND) consistent with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that resolved during treatment with i.v. ceftriaxone plus oral atovaquone[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The optimal treatment for Babesia has yet to be worked out. Physicians have different views over the diagnosis and treatment of Babesia.[danielcameronmd.com]
  • He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Relapses sometimes occur after treatment and must be retreated. Learn more about Babesia The CDC has known since 1979 that Babesia causes transfusion-transmitted infection in the US.[lymedisease.org]

Etiology

  • To characterize the etiologic agent (WA1) of the first reported case of babesiosis acquired in Washington State. Case report, and serologic, molecular, and epizootiologic studies. South-central Washington State.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Babesia caballi and Theileria equi are tick-borne pathogens, etiological agents of equine piroplasmosis that affect different species of Equidae causing relevantly important direct and indirect losses.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CORRESPONDING AUTHOR Bogumiła Skotarczak Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology, Szczecin University, Szczecin, Piastów 40 B, 71-065 Szczecin, Poland Ann Agric Environ Med. 2001;8(2):187–189 KEYWORDS ABSTRACT Babesia microti and B. divergens , the etiological[aaem.pl]
  • En inglés Babesia bigemina is one of the etiological agents of bovine babesiosis and in Argentina is transmitted only by nymphs and adults of the tick Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus.[sedici.unlp.edu.ar]

Epidemiology

  • These guidelines review the main methods currently used for the detection of Babesia and Theileria spp. for diagnostic purposes as well as epidemiological studies involving their vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Morphology, epidemiology, and phylogeny of Babesia: An overview.[doi.org]
  • epidemiology of the disease in the surveyed region than the geographical factors.[sedici.unlp.edu.ar]
  • Improved serodiagnostic and molecular techniques are needed for characterizing Babesia species and elucidating the epidemiology of babesiosis, an emergent zoonosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology and intra-erythrocytic development of these parasites are poorly understood. This impedes concerted efforts aimed at the discovery of novel anti-babesiacidal agents.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test Babesiosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the protozoan parasite Babesia microti .[mayomedicallaboratories.com]
  • The initial assembly of B. microti greatly advanced our understanding of the pathophysiology, metabolism and evolution of B. microti, and opened avenues for the development of better diagnostic tools and therapies [5].[doi.org]

Prevention

  • However, there are no exoerythrocytic stages in Babesia, so targeting of the blood stage and associated proteins to directly prevent parasite invasion is the most desirable option for effective disease control.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: Since B. divergens can survive in PLT concentrates and given the performance of UVC, this system could be considered as an alternative to prevent B. divergens and other Babesia species from being transmitted through PLT transfusions. 2014[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The identification of risk factors relative to each piroplasm infection, specific to a study area, is important in the development and improvement of tailored control and prevention programmes aimed at containing health and economic consequences.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The major barrier to preventing parasite transmission is the absence of a licensed assay to detect the parasite in blood donors.[journals.plos.org]

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