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Bacterial Encephalitis


Presentation

  • Make the most of your limited time with easy-to-digest blocks of information, consistently presented for clear readability and quick reference.[books.google.com]
  • Symptoms of meningeal irritation are commonly present, including headache and meningismus. However, encephalitis (or meningoencephalitis) is more likely to present with altered mental status.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • 1 encephalitis (present in 84% of patients) - Normal opening pressure CSF PCRs are extremely useful – available PCRs include HSV, VZV, CMV, EBV, Adenovirus, and Enterovirus.[errolozdalga.com]
  • Although it's possible for inflammation to occur without an infection being present, as a practical matter, in most cases of meningitis or encephalitis the inflammation is indeed due to an infection.[cordingleyneurology.com]
  • - clinical presentation may be altered by prior use of antibiotics.[rch.org.au]
Hemophilia A
  • Stay up to date with new chapters on Clotting Disorders and Hemophilia, Patient-Centered Care, Health Disparities and Diversity in Emergency Medicine, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis, Antibiotic Recommendations for Empirical Treatment of Selected Infectious[books.google.com]
High Fever
  • Call your doctor if your child has a high fever, especially if he or she also has a childhood illness (like measles, mumps, or chickenpox) or is recovering from one.[kidshealth.org]
  • The disease usually begins with a high fever and symptoms of flu. Within a few days the patient gets severe symptoms like seizures, unconsciousness, hemiplegia, visual disturbances and aphasia.[braininjury-explanation.com]
  • Symptoms may include a high fever and headache, accompanied by a stiff neck, vomiting, light sensitivity, and convulsions. Patients may also be drowsy, or confused, and difficult to rouse. In babies, there may be a bulge in the fontanelle.[brainfoundation.org.au]
  • Often, however, pneumococcal infection can appear first as a high fever with a very high white-blood-cell count (where almost all of the white cells are neutrophils or bacteria-fighting cells) and no obvious site of infection.[drreddy.com]
Intermittent Fever
  • Head ache, intermittent fever and papilledema resolved gradually over three months, with steroid tapering as she is getting better.[alliedacademies.org]
Vascular Disease
Low Back Pain
  • , sedation, physiotherapy, sick leaves for rest- and cyanocobalamin, it was every day outpatient clinics as two rooms open to receive about fifty patients per day the majority of them were with low back pain.[alliedacademies.org]
Facial Pain
  • Volume 1 covers the visual sensory system, the autonomic nervous system, the ocular motor system, the eyelid, facial pain and headache, and nonorganic disease. Volume 2 covers tumors, the phacomatoses, and vascular disease.[books.google.com]
Seizure
  • She is also the co-chair of the AES/ILAE Translational Research Task Force of the ILAE, which works towards the optimization of the use of animal models of seizures, epilepsies, and comorbidities in epilepsy research.[books.google.com]
  • Encephalitis often adds depression, blindness, opisthotonus, paresis/paralysis which may be progressive, ataxia, cranial nerve deficits, seizures and changes in mentation.[en.wikivet.net]
  • The 20-year risk of developing unprovoked seizures was 22% for patients with viral encephalitis and early seizures, 10% for patients with viral encephalitis without early seizures, 13% for patients with bacterial meningitis and early seizures, and 2.4%[neurology.org]
  • […] vision Rash Tremors Seizures Changes in personality Muscle weakness Loss of sensation or paralysis in areas of the body Loss of consciousness Bulging in infants’ soft spots, the fontanels Many of these symptoms occur with other types of headaches .[migraine.com]
  • Anticonvulsants are sometimes given to patients who have seizures. Sedatives can be effective for seizures, restlessness, and irritability.[medicalnewstoday.com]
Altered Mental Status
  • Symptoms then progress to fever, headache and altered mental status.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
  • Measles, Mumps, Rubella, VZV may be preceded by a viral prodrome with fever, headache, nausea and vomiting, lethargy, myalgias (highly variable) Abnormal brain function (diffuse or focal): altered mental status (confused, agitated, obtunded, somnolence[lifeinthefastlane.com]
  • However, encephalitis (or meningoencephalitis) is more likely to present with altered mental status. Fever is also present in most cases but can be absent with both infectious and noninfectious causes.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Refers to inflammation of the brain parenchyma, usually due to infection, that causes altered mental status as well as various neurological deficits depending on the area that is affected.[errolozdalga.com]
Stupor
  • Symptoms of encephalitis Headache Stupor, unresponsive Irritability Lethargy Seizures Coma Nausea and vomiting Loss of appetite Sensitivity to light Joint pain Drowsiness Symptoms of serious encephalitis Confusion, disorientation and hallucinations Double[migraine.com]
  • […] recognize: Body stiffness Irritability and crying more often (these symptoms may get worse when the baby is picked up) Poor feeding Soft spot on the top of the head may bulge out more Vomiting Emergency symptoms: Loss of consciousness, poor responsiveness, stupor[medlineplus.gov]
  • There is a broad range of possible manifestations of altered mental status including personality changes, irritability lethargy, stupor, or coma.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
Papilledema
  • Head ache, intermittent fever and papilledema resolved gradually over three months, with steroid tapering as she is getting better.[alliedacademies.org]
Somnolence
  • Measles, Mumps, Rubella, VZV may be preceded by a viral prodrome with fever, headache, nausea and vomiting, lethargy, myalgias (highly variable) Abnormal brain function (diffuse or focal): altered mental status (confused, agitated, obtunded, somnolence[lifeinthefastlane.com]

Workup

  • Should there be a standardised approach to the diagnostic workup of suspected adult encephalitis? A case series from Australia. BMC Infect Dis. 2010 Dec 15;10:353. PMC3018438. Irani SR, Vincent A.[lifeinthefastlane.com]
Pericardial Effusion

Treatment

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  • Coverage includes major updates on genetics of diseases, new diagnostic techniques, and the newest treatment options. This third volume covers degenerative, metabolic, infectious, inflammatory, and demyelinating diseases.[books.google.com]
  • The two sever cases underwent all modalities of treatment in other centers but end with blindness, one fifty five years old male no light perception and the second is twenty three old female end with shadow perception, on ensuing this anti Neurobrucellosis[omicsonline.org]
  • In farm species however, clinical signs are often used for a presumptive diagnosis and treatment instigated appropriately.[en.wikivet.net]
  • And you look for a radical treatment? for their knowledge I not use symptomatic treatment at all trying to discover the cause and treat it !!! I do not in need to say how much they are away from my attitude.[alliedacademies.org]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis The prognosis for a person with encephalitis varies according to the age of the patient – with the very young and very old particularly at risk – and the particular virus that caused the disease.[brainfoundation.org.au]
  • In addition, even experienced physicians often are uncertain about the cause, appropriate therapy, and prognosis.[pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
  • Worse prognosis if: extremes of age ( 55y) comorbidities immunodeficiency virulent organism References and links LITFL Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis (CCC) HSV encephalitis (CCC) Journal articles Armangue T, Leypoldt F, Dalmau J.[lifeinthefastlane.com]
  • Prognosis depends upon the specific viral agent that caused the encephalitis; mortality can be as high as 70 percent.[britannica.com]
  • What should you tell the family about the patient's prognosis? The most predictive factor for prognosis in patients with encephalitis is the severity of disease.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]

Etiology

  • Of those, the majority were viral (69%) and 20% were bacterial. 13% of cases had a possible etiology identified, 8% had noninfectious etiology, and 63% had no identifiable etiology.[errolozdalga.com]
  • A thorough and accurate review is difficult because the syndrome is complex and the number of etiologic agents and mimics of encephalitis are vast.[pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
  • In the majority of cases, an etiologic agent is never identified.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
  • In search of encephalitis etiologies: diagnostic challenges in the California Encephalitis Project, 1998-2000. Clin Infect Dis. 2003; 36(6): 731-42. PubMed Hunt G. Meningitis and encephalitis in adolescents.[arupconsult.com]
  • Etiology Edit Cause Edit Viral Edit Main article: Viral encephalitis Viral encephalitis can occur either as a direct effect of an acute infection, or as one of the sequelae of a latent infection.[psychology.wikia.com]

Epidemiology

  • Louis reservoir- English sparrow Discuss the epidemiology of the viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by California/ LaCrosse Encephalitis.[quizlet.com]
  • The IOM found no relevant epidemiologic studies of quality in the literature assessing an association between vaccination and MIBE [8].[vaccinesafety.edu]
  • (Epidemiology of encephalitis cases from California 1998-2005.) Clinical guidelines Tunkel, AR, Glaser, CA, Bloch, KC, Sejvar, JJ, Marra, CM, Roos, KL, Hartman, BJ, Kaplan, SL, Scheld, WM, Whitley, RJ.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
  • Epidemiology of meningitis with a negative CSF Gram stain: under-utilization of available diagnostic tests. Epidemiology and infection . 2016;144(1):189-197. Messacar K, Breazeale G, Wei Q, Robinson CC, Dominguez SR.[mlo-online.com]
  • Epidemiology Edit The incidence of acute encephalitis in Western countries is 7.4 cases per 100,000 population per year.[psychology.wikia.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Encephalitis in Adults: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. Neurotherapeutics. 2016; 13(3): 493-508. PubMed George BP, Schneider EB, Venkatesan A.[arupconsult.com]
  • Pathophysiology involves "onconeural" antigen: an appropriate immune response against a tumor antigen cross-reacts with similar antigens expressed by the nervous system Classified by their associated Abs – obviously, not important for us to memorize these[errolozdalga.com]
  • […] soon as the diagnosis is suspected Always consider epidemiological factors that may indicate an unusual cause of encephalitis (e.g. arboviruses and zoonoses), especially in Australia Encephalitis is commonly fatal or results in significant morbidity PATHOPHYSIOLOGY[lifeinthefastlane.com]
  • Pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis: mechanism(s) of neuronal injury. The Journal of infectious diseases . 2002;186 Suppl 2:S225-233. Hasbun R. The Acute Aseptic Meningitis Syndrome. Current infectious disease reports . 2000;2(4):345-351.[mlo-online.com]

Prevention

  • Control Minimising perinatal stress, ensuring colostrum quality and intake and maintaining hygienic conditions for neonates at parturition and also during husbandry and surgical procedures are all vital measures to prevent septicaemia and concurrent bacterial[en.wikivet.net]
  • Include the disease caused, unique clinical features, primary host/reservoir, arthropod vector (if any), mode of transmission, and preventive measures.[quizlet.com]
  • Can Encephalitis Be Prevented? Encephalitis can't be prevented, but you can avoid the illnesses that may lead to it. Immunizations protect kids from many common childhood illnesses. So follow the immunization schedule recommended by your doctor.[kidshealth.org]
  • Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Washington D.C.: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2015. 8. Institute of Medicine. In: Stratton K, Ford A, Rusch E, Clayton EW, eds.[vaccinesafety.edu]
  • Preventing encephalitis It's not always possible to prevent encephalitis, but some of the infections that cause it can be prevented with vaccinations.[nhsdirect.wales.nhs.uk]

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