Detailed history including possible irritant agents is required in order to come to the correct diagnosis. Presenting patients may complain of change in color of the penis, itching, and burning sensation when urinating.
Physical examination of the glans penis and the foreskin will reveal a red macular ulcerating lesion. Other signs include erythema and areas of yellow to black discoloration .
There are different forms of the inflammation and each form may manifest differently. The first form is blanoposthitis simplex, which manifests as redness, swelling, secretion, and wounds on the glans penis. The second form is balanoposthitis candidomycetica, presenting as glowing redness, appearance of whitish bubbles, itching and burning sensation when urinating; patients with this form are usually diabetic. The third form is Balanoposthitis erosive cicirnata characterized by a chronic course of irregular whitish, red and gray-whitish changes; in some cases it is associated with Reiter's disease.
Balanoposthitis may be associated with an human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which is suggested by the presence of irregular borders or acetowhite changes with 5% acetic acid treatment.
Immunocompromised patients with systemic fungal infections may show deep ulceration of the glans penis or the foreskin.
Entire Body System
Balanoposthitis: In the uncircumcised male, balanitis (inflammation of the glans, the rounded head of the penis) and posthitis (inflammation of the foreskin) usually occur together as balanoposthitis: inflammation of both the glans and foreskin. [rxlist.com]
When these bacteria build up, both the foreskin and the glans may develop inflammation. Benefits of Circumcision To address uncomfortable swelling and penile inflammation, consider the benefits of circumcision. [socalcircumcision.com]
In the struck area white sites of the become lifeless bulked-up epithelium on which place the large painful bright red erosion limited on edge to accurately expressed maceration rims develop are formed. [medicine-for-you.com]
white cheesy discharge or deposit with Candida balanoposthitis, difficulty and pain when laid bare the glans member, there is pain or discomfort in the head during intercourse. [medusanews.com]
Common symptoms of these conditions include: Pain Redness and swelling Itching Groin rash Painful urination Penile (not urethral) discharge Balanoposthitis and Balanitis Diagnosis and Treatment To figure out the cause of penile inflammation, your doctor [khealth.com]
HISTORY 24 year old heterosexual male In steady relationship for 12 months Presented with sore throat and painful non-retractable prepuce. [mshc.org.au]
CLINICAL FEATURES • Frenal tears / Edema / Pain (Traumatic) • Vesicles / Bullae with Erosions (CD/FDE) 15. [slideshare.net]
- Congestive Heart Failure
heart failure, cirrhosis, and nephrotic syndrome Obesity Drug allergies (e.g., antibiotics) Trauma 5 - TREATMENT Most cases of balanitis are easily treated with good hygiene and topical therapy with creams or ointments. [therapeutique-dermatologique.org]
Males who are predisposed to developing balanitis include those with: Congestive heart failure Nephritis Cirrhosis Morbid obesity Males who are more likely to develop balanitis include those: With poor personal hygiene Who are sensitive to chemical irritants [medicinenet.com]
heart failure (right-sided), cirrhosis, and nephrosis Drug allergies (e.g., tetracycline, sulfonamide) Morbid obesity Allergic reaction (condom latex, contraceptive jelly) Fixed-drug eruption (sulfa, tetracycline) Plasma cell infiltration (Zoon balanitis [statpearls.com]
heart failure, nephrosis Reactive arthritis Sexually transmitted diseases Balanoposthitis prevention You can reduce your chances of getting balanoposthitis by: keeping your penis clean avoiding harsh soaps and other skin irritants using soap substitutes [healthjade.net]
At this stage, general signs of inflammation appear such as fever, weakness and fatigue. Three types of balanoposthitis are distinguished: Catarrhal. [brulanta.com]
SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS Tightening of the foreskin or phimosis(stenosis) Foul smelling discharge Apparent ulcerations Unusual enlargement of the lymph nodes over the groin area Fatigue Low back pain Anxiety TSHEGOFATSO MOKGOSI 6. [slideshare.net]
Symptoms and Signs Soreness Irritation Subpreputial discharge Phimosis Superficial ulcerations Inguinal adenopathy Anxiety Lower back pain Fatigue Redness of penis Painful penis and foreskin Rashes on the penis and foul smell discharge Treatment of Balanoposthitis [wikidoc.org]
Redness of the penis with rashes · Painful penis and prepuce · Presence of discharge beneath the prepuce · Tightening of the foreskin or phimosis · Discharge with unpleasant odour · Ulcerations or skin erosions · Lymph node enlargement on the groin · Fatigue [library.everyonehealthy.com]
- Streptococcal Infection
In addition, several infections cause balanitis, such as: Candida species (most commonly associated with diabetes) infection Streptococcal infection Sexually transmitted infections: o Neisseria gonorrhoeae o Chlamydia species o Treponema pallidum (syphilis [therapeutique-dermatologique.org]
The presence of a thin purulent discharge within the preputial-glanular sulcus in the absence of a true urethral discharge may signal a streptococcal infection. [journals.lww.com]
Systemic antibiotics are employed to treat group A Streptococcal infection, anaerobic infection, Staphylococcus aureus infection, and sexually transmitted infection as discussed below. [medilib.ir]
- Inguinal Lymphadenopathy
We report a case of primary syphilis presenting as erosive and crusted balanoposthitis with an underlying chancre, penile edema, and bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy in a heterosexual man. [journals.lww.com]
Inguinal lymphadenopathy. 39.1.4 Complications Recurrent bouts of balanitis may cause scarring of the preputial orifice; with a subsequent reduction of preputial elasticity, which may lead to pathologic phimosis (Fig. 39.4 ). [abdominalkey.com]
[Figure - 1] There was no inguinal lymphadenopathy and tenderness. He was prescribed antifungal cream (clotrimazole 1%), but did not respond. Then he was prescribed co-trimoxazole tablets and acyclovir cream topically. [ijdvl.com]
Circinate balanitis: This type of balanitis is a result of reactive arthritis, a type of arthritis that develops in response to an infection in the body. [my.clevelandclinic.org]
The distinction between circinate balanitis and psoriasis is generally made clinically (history of reactive arthritis or psoriasis). [statpearls.com]
Other causes are classed as either infectious or non-infectious and include: Candidiasis Chlamydial urethritis Herpes simplex virus Syphilis Trichomoniasis Contact dermatitis Balanitis xerotica obliterans Psoriasis Reactive arthritis Balanitis xerotica [medic8.com]
Immunocompromised patients with systemic fungal infections may have worse prognosis leading to deeper ulcerating lesions of the penis. [symptoma.com]
The most common simple, gangrenous, pustular-ulcer, and Trichomonas balanoposthitis. [medicalency.com]
Pustulous and ulcer. In the struck area there are multiple gnoynichka further turning into deep ulcers. After treatment of a simple and erosive form of a balanopostit of hems does not remain. [medicine-for-you.com]
CLINICAL FEATURES • Annular erythematous moist plaques with ulceration healing with fibrosis / scarring with preceding Oral Ulcers / Ophthalmic inv (Behcet’s Disease) 21. [slideshare.net]
The most common simple, gangrenous, pustular-ulcerative, and Trichomonas balanoposthitis. [survinat.com]
Pain, erythema, and edema of the affected parts of the penis are typically present. Patients may refrain from urination secondary to dysuria, or the edema may induce meatal occlusion, leading to urinary retention or obstruction. [accessemergencymedicine.mhmedical.com]
Tenderness and erythema of the glans penis. Itching. Systemic symptoms such as fever and nausea are uncommon. 39.1.3 Physical Examination Findings may include the following: Erythema and oedema of glans penis or foreskin (Fig. 39.2 ). [abdominalkey.com]
Anaerobic bacterial infection - should be suspected in cases with erythema, edema, and foul-smelling exudate. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Skin Disease
Factors that favor its development are phimosis (tight, non-retractable foreskin), short frenulum as well as coexisting diseases such as: -Diabetes mellitus -Autoimmune Diseases and -Patients who receiving immunosuppressive therapy Symptoms The skin of [athenssouth.gr]
Skin diseases. There are some skin diseases that may cause balanoposthitis (e.g. psoriasis) How is Balanoposthitis diagnosed? Most of the times, just the clinical examination is enough for the physician to set the diagnosis. [imop.gr]
Disease, an e-book authored by CB. [bestpractice.bmj.com]
In Mallon's study (2000) of 357 patients with genital skin diseases and 305 controls, most cases of inflammatory penile dermatoses (and all patients with nonspecific balanoposthitis) were in men not circumcised. [diki.pl]
- Skin Lesion
The above-mentioned findings were compared with premalignant and malignant skin lesions in which a major amount of plasma cells was present in the inflammatory infiltrate. Comparable results were obtained with slight variations. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Zoon, who characterized it in 1952. See also Balanitis Pseudoepitheliomatous keratotic and micaceous balanitis Skin lesion List of cutaneous conditions References ^ Davis DA, Cohen PR (February 1995). [en.wikipedia.org]
- Skin Rash
But when the skin starts to peel and crack, the body remains susceptible to infection and bacteria, and while common rashes, such as eczema and psoriasis, can agitate, rare disorders such as balanoposthitis too can present issues for males. [herballove.com]
Do not use the medication for more than 14 days in a row because this could lead to side effects, such as itchy skin and a skin rash. [your.md]
High risk sexual history suggests STIs including trichomonas, HSV, HPV, scabies, chlamydia, Purulent and foul smelling exudate suggests bacterial infection. Vesicular or ulcerative lesions suggest HSV, syphilis. [bcemergencynetwork.ca]
Forty nine biopsies showed marked koilocytosis suggestive of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, and of these, only three showed fungal hyphae. This study suggests that HPV may be associated with some cases of patchy balanoposthitis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Then only, I will be able to suggest a treatment. Small pimples over the tip of penis is normal. Also, send details like color, c... Read Full » [icliniq.com]
Initially, I ignored it but after a week I visited a Urologist who diagnosed it as Balanoposthitis and suggested to apply TBact and Candid B. [practo.com]
Your doctor might suggest using a mild steroid cream as well. Oral antifungal medicine might be prescribed in more severe cases of balanitis or balanoposthitis. [healthymale.org.au]
Circumcision may not be right for every patient, but it can prevent the irritation and infection so often associated with penile foreskin. [socalcircumcision.com]
It is advised to avoid irritants and common allergens, fully dry the penis after washing, and use soap substitutes and emollients. [symptoma.com]
These conditions include: Tight foreskin Injuries and accidents Irritation from exposure to chemicals Irritation caused by rubbing Eczema Balanoposthitis can happen due to everyday activities. [pristyncare.com]
The foreskin and glans can become irritated and inflamed due to poor hygiene, excessive cleaning or retracting of the foreskin, infection, diaper rash, irritants like harsh soaps, or an injury. Balanoposthitis is more common in uncircumcised boys. [brennerchildrens.org]
Recalcitrant irritation balanoposthitis may require a short course of erythromycin or one of the penicillins which should kill the anaerobic bacteria that may produce irritant enzymes. [journals.lww.com]
- Penile Pain
Clinical presentation: Suspect in males with penile pain, erythema, burning sensation or pruritus of the glans or foreskin. Balanitis is much more common in uncircumcised men. [bcemergencynetwork.ca]
Frenulum Breve Treatment in Men Penile Pain During Sex Impotence in men with diabetes. [newyorkurologyspecialists.com]
Men with suspected balanitis often complain of penile pain and redness. Physical examination revealing an inflamed and erythematous glans confirms the diagnosis of balanitis. [statpearls.com]
History and Physical Balanoposthitis can present as penile pain, pruritus, discharge, erythema, rash, or inconsolable crying. By definition, this only presents in uncircumcised boys. It can be more common in patients with poor hygiene. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Patients may refrain from urination secondary to dysuria, or the edema may induce meatal occlusion, leading to urinary retention or obstruction. [accessemergencymedicine.mhmedical.com]
Obtain urinalysis to evaluate for suspected urinary tract infection in patients with dysuria. Additional Reading: Lisboa C, Ferreira A, Resende C, et al. Infectious balanoposthitis: management, clinical, and laboratory features. [ebmedicine.net]
[…] addition to the general measures described above, empirical application of topical antibiotic ointment (eg, Polysporin or Bacitracin) four times daily or cream (eg, Bactroban, Bactocin, or Bactoderm) twice daily to any breaks in the skin helps reduce dysuria [medilib.ir]
Dysuria. Interference with urinary flow in severe cases. Obscuration of glans/external urethral meatus. Impotence or pain during coitus. Regional lymphadenopathy. Investigations Blood/urine testing for glucose if diabetes mellitus is possible. [patient.info]
- Burning Micturition
CLINICAL FEATURES • Papules / Pustules or Vesicles (even Bullae) with Erosions • Prepucial Edema, Phimosis • Thick, foul smelling subpreputial discharge • Pain / Pruritis / Burning Micturition • Painful LAN • Extensive Ulceration • Phaegedena 14. [slideshare.net]
Laboratory studies include potassium hydroxide (KOH) slide preparation, which visualizes the hyphae of candida. Cultures are also used to isolate candida species. Serologic tests may be used in rare unclear cases . If malignancy is suspected, such as erythroplasia of Queyrat or Bowen disease, a biopsy is taken from the lesion and examined. Fungal elements characteristic of candidal organisms may be revealed using the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain. Lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates are found in the dermis; however, histologic features are eczematous in nature and nonspecific.
supporting the diagnosis of candida balanitis. [onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
Abstract The Candida hemagglutination test (Candida-HA-Test), the complement fixation, Candida immunofluorescent test (Candida-IF-Test) and the agglutination-test were performed in 34 patients suffering from genital candidosis and in 34 healthy controls [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Candida balanitis; Risk factors. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009;24(7):820-6. Alsterholm M, Flytström I, Leifsdottir R, Faergemann J, Bergbrant IM. Frequency of Bacteria, Candida and Malassezia Species in Balanoposthitis. [ijord.com]
Candida Clotrimazole 1% or miconazole 2% cream bid x 2 weeks. OR 150 mg Fluconazole PO x 1 dose (recurrent or severe infection). [bcemergencynetwork.ca]
Definition / general Infection of glans and foreskin, usually due to Candida, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Garderella, anaerobes or pyogenic bacteria (Acta Derm Venereol 2008;88:331, eMedicine: Balanoposthitis [Accessed 28 March 2018]) Epidemiology [pathologyoutlines.com]
[…] influenzae isolated Gonococcal culture negative Chlamydia SDA negative THE LESSON This case illustrates the difficulties in managing acute balanoposthitis when the prepuce can’t be retracted. [mshc.org.au]
STI's STI's Chlamydia Chlamydia Condylomas (HPV) Condylomas (HPV) Gonorrhea Gonorrhea Hepatitis Hepatitis Herpes Herpes Syphilis Syphilis HIV HIV [cliniquelactuel.com]
In all cases, cultures for Candida albicans, herpes simplex virus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum were negative. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Recommended investigations: Microbiology Gram stain and culture for bacterial causes including candida as well chlamydia and gonorrhea (if indicated). [bcemergencynetwork.ca]
General measures for the management of the inflammation include paying attention to personal hygiene, avoiding irritants and allergens, wearing cotton underwear, making sure to dry the penis after washing, and using a lubricant during sexual intercourse in order to decrease symptoms of dyspareunia .
Emollients, topical corticosteroids, and antihistamines are used in the management of atopic eczema, pruritus, psoriasis, and contact dermatitis. Aluminum acetate soaks may also be beneficial in acute contact dermatitis cases .
Seborrheic dermatitis is treated with the general measures in addition to topical antifungals to control erythema and inflammation. Topical corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors may be applied as well. Oral fluconazole or itraconazole achieve good results in severe cases or in immunocompromised patients.
Topical vitamin D or calcineurin inhibitors may be used in the management of psoriasis or Reiter's disease. UV light, acitretin, cyclosporine, methotrexate, or biologic agents may be required in severe cases of psoriasis.
Lichen sclerosis is treated with topical corticosteroids. However, surgical intervention is necessary in the case of failure of medical treatment.
Ceftriaxone or cefixime with azithromycin or doxycycline are recommended to be used in the management of gonorrhea. A single dose of azithromycin is advised if the patient is allergic to cephalosporin. Gonorrhea infection is serious and cultures should be taken and examined for antibiotics resistance in patients who do not respond to treatment and have persistent symptoms. Reporting cases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is important in patients who do not respond to medical treatment. Evaluation of sex partners during the preceding 60 days is required and treatment should be started in those diagnosed with the infection.
Topical antifungal agents with hydrocortisone are effective in the treatment of candidosis. Oral antifungal agents are recommended in immunocompromised patients or if topical agents prove not to be effective. Underlying diseases, such as HIV or diabetes, should be treated.
The management is difficult in nonspecific cases of balanoposthitis. General measures, topical and oral antifungal agents, corticosteroids, and antibiotics are all ineffective. Surgical intervention with circumcision may be the only option for the treatment of these cases.
The management of zoon balanitis includes topical corticosteroids in addition to an antifungal agent or antibiotics. Cases that do not respond to medical management may require surgical intervention with circumcision .
Balanoposthitis has good prognosis; however, in rare cases treatment may fail, which should raise suspicion of malignancy and requires further workup. Two malignancies may resemble balanoposthitis, which are erythroplasia of Queyrat and Bowen disease. Acute promyelocytic leukemia may also present as an ulcerating lesion of the penis mimicking balanoposthitis . A biopsy is taken to rule out both primary and secondary malignancies of the penis. Immunocompromised patients with systemic fungal infections may have worse prognosis leading to deeper ulcerating lesions of the penis.
Studies of bacterial or fungal cultures showed higher frequency of positive cultures among patients with balanoposthitis when compared with the control group . Staphylococcus aureus, group B streptococci, Candida albicans, and Malassezia were found in cultures obtained from patients.
Circumcision helps in the prevention of balanoposthitis and other penile infections . Uncircumcised males have higher incidence of developing the inflammation. Preputial smegma stones are usually associated with patients who develop the infection . Cases of balanoposthitis have been reported after Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) treatment of urothelial cancer .
Balanoposthitis has been reported in different races, and there is no correlation between the development of the inflammation and certain ethnic groups. It affects only males and usually develops in children up to 5 years of age, as well as among sexually active adults. There are no epidemiological studies for balanoposthitis in the United States. However, there are different international studies in other countries. For example, a study of 603 uncircumcised Japanese boys revealed 1.5% cases suffering from inflammation . Another study in Hong Kong revealed that only 1 boy among 2149 elementary schoolchildren had the inflammation . Morbidity and mortality due to balanoposthitis are rare; however mondor phlebitis of the penis has been reported in patients with recurrent candidal infections . Immunocompromised patients with secondary fungal septicemia may have a higher risk of mortality.
The glans penis and the foreskin consist of sensitive tissue, which is usually in contact with irritants, such as moisture, sweat, heat, urine detergents, sexual secretions, and other infectious agents. Inflammation can be caused by any of these irritant factors leading to dysfunction, scarring, and precancerous or cancerous lesions in rare cases.
The presence of foreskin in uncircumcised men provides the moist warm predisposing conditions for the development of balanoposthitis  . Circumcision is an option for both the prevention and in some cases the management of balanoposthitis.
Good personal hygiene, especially in the genital area, prevents the development of the inflammation. It is advised to avoid irritants and common allergens, fully dry the penis after washing, and use soap substitutes and emollients.
Balanoposthitis is an infection of the foreskin or the glans penis, which affects mainly uncircumcised men because of the moist warm conditions.
Etiology of the inflammation includes bacterial and fungal infections. The main responsible agents are Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, group B streptococci, and Malassezia . Risk factors include poor hygiene of the genital area, in addition to irritants and allergens.
There is no correlation between the development of the inflammation and certain races as it has been reported in different ethnic groups. It is usually diagnosed in children up to 5 years of age and in sexually active males.
The diagnosis of the inflammation is made based on the history and the physical examination. The clinical picture includes redness, swelling, and ulceration of the glans penis . Whitish bubbles may appear in some cases. If candida infection is suspected, a smear is taken to visualize the hyphae and confirm the diagnosis.
Management of the inflammation includes general measures, such as good personal hygiene and avoidance of the risk factors, irritants, and allergens. Topical or oral corticosteroids, antihistamines, vitamin D, and antibiotics may be used depending on the specific cause of the inflammation. Surgical intervention with circumcision is required in rare cases if medical management fails.
The prognosis of balanoposthitis is good; however, immunocompromised patients may have deeper ulcerating lesions and worse prognosis. If medical management fails, further workup should be done to exclude malignancies.
Avoidance of the risk factors and maintaining a good personal hygiene helps in preventing the inflammation. Circumcision decreases the risk of developing the infection .
Balanoposthitis is defined as an inflammation of the glans penis (the tip of the penis). It usually affects uncircumcised men because of the moist warm conditions. The inflammation is usually due to fungal or bacterial infections. Risk factors include poor hygiene and irritation with soap or disinfectants.
The symptoms and clinical features of the inflammation include redness, swelling, secretion, and wounds or ulceration on the tip of the penis. The infection may cause itch sensation in the area and burning when urinating. Other forms of the inflammation may appear as white bubbles or gray-whitish changes on the glans penis.
Thorough history and physical examination of the lesion are required in order to make the diagnosis. Further workup may be needed to confirm the diagnosis including examination of smears from the ulceration and cultures. In rare cases, a biopsy is taken and examined in order to exclude malignancy.
Management of balanoposthitis includes general measures, such as avoiding irritants and allergens, drying the penis after washing, wearing cotton underwear, and using lubricants during sexual intercourse. In addition to these measures, treatment with topical or oral corticosteroids, antihistamines, vitamin D, and antibiotics may be used depending on the specific cause of the inflammation.
The outcome of the inflammation is very good; however, if medical management fails, this raises suspicion of potential malignancy. In these cases further workup is recommended, such as taking a biopsy from the lesion for examination. Immunocompromised patients may have deeper ulcerating lesions with worse outcomes.
Prevention of the inflammation includes good personal hygiene, especially in the genital area. Additionally, risk factors, such as irritants and allergens, need to be avoided. Circumcision helps in decreasing the risk of getting the infection.
- Alsterholm M, Flytstrom I, Leifsdottir R, et al. Frequency of bacteria, Candida and malassezia species in balanoposthitis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2008; 88(4): 331-6.
- Duerden BI. Black-pigmented gram-negative anaerobes in genito-urinary tract and pelvic infections. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. March 1993; 6(2-3): 223-7.
- Mallon E, Hawkins D, Dinneen M, et al. Circumcision and genital dermatoses. Arch Dermatol. March 2000; 136(3): 350-4.
- Sonnex C, Croucher PE, Dockerty WG. Balanoposthitis associated with the presence of subpreputial "smegma stones". Genitourin Med. December 1997; 73(6): 567.
- Linden-Castro E, Pelayo-Nieto M, Alias-Melgar A. Penile tuberculosis after intravesical bacille Calmette-Gue´rin immunotherapy. Urology. August 2014; 84(2): e3.
- Kayaba H, Tamura H, Kitajima S, et al. Analysis of shape and retractability of the prepuce in 603 Japanese boys. J Urol. November 1996; 156(5): 1813-5.
- Hsieh TF, Chang CH, Chang SS. Foreskin development before adolescence in 2149 schoolboys. Int J Urol. July 2006; 13(7): 968-70.
- Agrawal SK, Singal A, Pandhi D. Mondor's phlebitis of penis following recurrent candidal balanoposthitis. Int J Dermatol. January 2005; 44(1): 83-4.
- Steinbach F, Essbach U, Florschütz A, et al. Ulcerative balanoposthitis as the initial manifestation of acute promyelocytic leukemia. J Urol. October 1998; 160(4): 1430-1.
- Dockerty WG, Sonnex C. Candidal balano-posthitis: a study of diagnostic methods. Genitourin Med. December 1995; 71(6): 407-9.
- Pandya I, Shinojia M, Vadukul D, et al. Approach to balanitis/balanoposthitis: Current guidelines. Indian J Sex Transm Dis. July-December 2014; 35(2): 155-7.
- Morris BJ. Why circumcision is a biomedical imperative for the 21st century. Bioessays. 2007; 29: 1147-1158.