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  • This paper presents 14 cases in which the distribution of barbiturates and the hydroxylated metabolites in combination with miscellaneous CNS-active drugs was studied.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Group B (23 patients) presented intracranial hypertension controlled with first tier measures, and acted as a control.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A case of barbiturate-induced submassive hepatic necrosis is presented and the literature is reviewed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present case is compared with similar rare cases in the literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • At this time, there is no standardized management protocol directed at acute headaches presenting to the ED.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Moderate hypothermia and thiopental barbiturate coma are indicated in patients with generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus which cannot be controlled with standard anticonvulsant drug therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: Of the 53 patients, 44 experienced hyperthermia ( 38 degrees C) and 29 experienced hypothermia ( DISCUSSION: Patients with hyperthermia, hypertension, high CPP and tachycardia may suffer from a hyperdynamic state.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract We report the use of intracranial pressure monitoring, mild hypothermia and barbiturate coma in a patient with meningococcal meningitis complicated by raised intracranial pressure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Very few (ie, 15 of 57; 26%) protocols were capable of distinguishing between direct cerebral protection by the barbiturates and an artifactual, hypothermia-related, effect.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • They also discuss the role of pentobarbital-induced hypothermia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Acute Intermittent Porphyria
  • ALA synthetase is involved in the porphyrin production pathway, and therefore barbiturates are contraindicated in patients with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) or variegate porphyria because they may precipitate an attack, manifested by severe abdominal[openanesthesia.org]
  • Their effect on ALA synthetase leads to the accumulation of ALA, which can lead to exacerbations of acute intermittent porphyria and porphyria variegata.[web.archive.org]
  • intermittent porphyria is a dominantly inherited partial deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase Adrenoleukodystrophy is an X-linked disorder caused by mutations of a gene encoding a peroxisomal protein Friedreich's ataxia is an autosomal recessive disorder[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • At last follow-up more than 1 year postoperatively they were asymptomatic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • With moderate intoxications, the PaCO 2 -dependent ventilatory drive is depressed, and, at high doses, the hypoxic drive is eliminated, resulting in bradypnea and apnea.[web.archive.org]
Restless Legs Syndrome
  • Opiates These drugs may be used to treat conditions that contribute to sleep disruption such as restless legs syndrome as a second line drug.[rxlist.com]
  • Insomnia Treatment (Sleep Aids and Stimulants) Insomnia is difficulty in falling or staying asleep, the absence of restful sleep, or poor quality of sleep. Insomnia is a...[medicinenet.com]
  • COMMON & BRAND NAMES Barbs; Barbies; Downers; Blues; Nembies; Seccies EFFECTS CLASSIFICATION Depressant CHEMICAL NAME Various (see below) DESCRIPTION Barbiturates are a class of sedative drugs prescribed for anxiety and insomnia.[erowid.org]
  • Benzodiazepine Withdrawal and Treatment: Benzos are often used for short-term treatment of panic, anxiety, insomnia or muscle spasms.[patmoorefoundation.com]
  • The barbiturates have been used to treat insomnia (trouble in sleeping); but if they are used regularly (for example, every day) for insomnia, they are usually not effective for longer than 2 weeks.[mayoclinic.org]
  • This drug is used to treat insomnia (sleepiness), as a relaxing medication before anesthesia, and in some instances for the treatment of seizures.[addictionsearch.com]
  • Here are some similarities and differences between the two often confused drugs.[patmoorefoundation.com]
  • Physical side effects can include sluggish speech, drowsiness, dizziness, shallow breathing, fever, slow heartbeat, confusion, irritability and, in severe cases, coma or death. Barbiturates have a high potential for addiction.[questdiagnostics.com]
  • Unfortunately, if someone gets confused about how many pills they have taken, he (or she) may take more and unintentionally wind up with an overdose that kills him.[narconon.org]
  • In older people, barbiturates may be more likely to cause confusion, depression, and unusual excitement. These effects are also more likely in people who are very ill.[surgeryencyclopedia.com]
  • Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances No significant cautionary statements.[mayomedicallaboratories.com]
Slurred Speech
  • If your loved one has inappropriately used barbiturates, he or she may display poor judgment, slow speech, and slurred speech. He or she may move differently because of sluggishness and problems with coordination.[lasencinashospital.com]
  • They also cause drowsiness, slurred speech, ataxia, decreased anxiety and a loss of inhibitions. The danger of abusing barbiturates is respiratory depression , which can cause breathing to slow and stop altogether.[treatment4addiction.com]
  • But large doses will cause problems such as slurred speech, lack of co-ordination, anger and difficulty remaining awake. However dependence can occur over time.[medic8.com]
  • Larger doses can cause hostility, anxiety, slurred speech, paranoia and suicidal thoughts. Withdrawal from them can lead to other mild or severe complications as well. Pharmacological barbiturates are created using barbituric acid.[softschools.com]
  • Drowsiness and dizziness are common side effects of phenobarbital. Additionally, headaches, loss of appetite, nausea, excitation, and vomiting have been reported.[examples.yourdictionary.com]
  • RESULTS: Barbiturate side effects included dizziness, drowsiness, and somnolence. All effects resolved spontaneously without medical intervention.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Benzodiazepine Side effects: Relaxation Euphoria Sense of wellbeing Sedation Dizziness Impaired vision Decreased motor skills/unsteadiness Dizziness The side effects of benzos are increased when paired with other drugs such as barbiturates, alcohol, narcotics[patmoorefoundation.com]
  • Physical side effects can include sluggish speech, drowsiness, dizziness, shallow breathing, fever, slow heartbeat, confusion, irritability and, in severe cases, coma or death. Barbiturates have a high potential for addiction.[questdiagnostics.com]
  • Side effects The most common side effects are dizziness, lightheadedness, drowsiness, and clumsiness or unsteadiness.[surgeryencyclopedia.com]
  • They also cause drowsiness, slurred speech, ataxia, decreased anxiety and a loss of inhibitions. The danger of abusing barbiturates is respiratory depression , which can cause breathing to slow and stop altogether.[treatment4addiction.com]
  • Patients from a polydrug abuse treatment program were titrated with either secobarbital or methaqualone, their primary drug of abuse, to a state of mild intoxication, consisting of lateral and vertical nystagmus, ataxia, slurred speech, and drowsiness[doi.org]
  • Larger doses can cause hostility, anxiety, body ataxia, slurred speech, paranoia and suicidal thoughts. The risk of falling over or having an accident is also increased.[news-medical.net]
  • CNS Drowsiness, Ataxia, Amnesia, Euphoria. 2. Respiration Depression, Hiccough, Laryngospasm, Bronchospasm 3. CVS Decreased B.P—- Myocardial depression 4. Liver Enzyme induction Porphyria 5.[howmed.net]
  • Mitsunori Shimmura, Taira Uehara, Kenichiro Yamashita, Hiroshi Shigeto, Ryo Yamasaki, Kinya Ishikawa and Jun-ichi Kira, Slowed abduction during smooth pursuit eye movement in episodic ataxia type 2 with a novel CACNA1A mutation, Journal of the Neurological[doi.org]


  • Treatment delay did not predict a worsened outcome. Hypotension caused dose reduction but never required treatment discontinuation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODS: An ED headache treatment algorithm with step-wise instructions for diagnosis, treatment, and discharge planning was piloted at Lakewood Hospital, a regional Cleveland Clinic affiliated hospital.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Three names stand out for the pioneering of this treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • KEYWORDS: Barbiturates; EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning); dialyzability; extracorporeal treatment; hemodialysis; poisoning; recommendations[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CBF was measured at strategic intervals either to follow the treatment (hyperventilation and/or pentobarbitone), or to determine whether these principles of treatment should be intensified or reduced.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • A person's outcome, also called prognosis, after abusing barbiturates depends on a number of factors.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • However, the relevance of this classification system in terms of prognosis remains to be well defined as the agents’ duration of action is only partially correlated with half-life (the remaining differences are accounted for with tissue binding and distribution[emedicine.com]
  • Rossmeisl, Status epilepticus in dogs and cats, part 2: treatment, monitoring, and prognosis, Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, 27, 3, (288-300), (2017).[doi.org]
  • University Hospital, Huddinge, Beckomberga Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden and Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA Search for more papers by this author First published: May 1987 Cited by: 40 Abstract ABSTRACT— The prognosis[doi.org]


  • Etiology was the primary predictor of outcome, but more prolonged treatment and the use of PB during pentobarbital withdrawal appeared to provide protection against relapse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Skin: Approximately 6% of patients with barbiturate poisoning and 50% of patients with lethal poisoning develop tense, clear, bullous skin lesions of unclear etiology.[web.archive.org]
  • , despite the absence of evidence, that schizophrenia is a group of disorders with a common overlapping phenotype rather than a single disease entity The neurodevelopmental hypothesis suggests that the etiology of schizophrenia may involve pathological[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • No epidemiological studies on the relative frequency of abuse and dependence, or studies that have analyzed combination product use from a public health and social benefit to risk perspective, have been published to clarify the issues about the nature[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Meta-analysis of competing mortality in the psychosocially vulnerable, International Journal of Epidemiology, 30, 1, (154), (2001).[doi.org]
  • An epidemiologic study. Journal of the American Medical Association 209: 2016–2020 (1969).[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • Author information 1 Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Division of Systems Physiology, University of Heidelberg Medical Center, Heidelberg, Germany. robert_feldmann@gmx.li Abstract The authors report the case of a 32-year-old man who had been[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The work shows that MMP-inhibitory barbiturates are suitable scaffolds for hybrid design, targeting additional facets of MMP pathophysiology, with potential to improve risk-benefit ratios.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hypoperfusion as demonstrated by SPECT rCBF studies may play an important role in the pathophysiology of mental disorders, i.e., postoperative delirium.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Page 660 - Corticotropin releasing hormone in the pathophysiology of melancholic and atypical depression and in the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. ‎[books.google.com]
  • Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test Barbiturates represent a class of drugs that were originally introduced as sleep inducers.[mayomedicallaboratories.com]


  • Barbiturates Image courtesy of the Indiana Prevention Resource Center Barbiturates Image courtesy of the Indiana Prevention Resource Center Behavioral Effects of Barbiturates Barbiturates have several effects on behavior depending on the dose: In low[web.archive.org]
  • The therapeutic effect of barbiturates was monitored by prevention of spontaneous respiration without hypotension.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In cerebral aneurysm surgery, cerebral oedema following cerebral ischaemia, either associated with vasospasm or resulting from surgical occlusion of vessels, remains a major problem postoperatively and may be an indication for preventive treatment with[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A multidisciplinary approach prevents many possible complications of this form of therapy and facilitates treatment when untoward physiological complications do occur. The following case report illustrates one such complication.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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