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Barmah Forest Virus Infection

Barmah Forest (BF) virus infection occurs when the virus is transmitted to humans through a mosquito bite. Mosquitoes become carriers (vectors) when they feed on an animal infected with the virus, often a kangaroo or wallaby. The virus is indigenous to Australia.


Presentation

Persons infected with Barmah Forest virus may be asymptomatic or may experience flu-like symptoms. Children are often asymptomatic or present with milder symptoms that usually appear for a short duration in comparison to adults [1]. Symptoms typically onset 1 to 2 weeks after being bitten by an infected mosquito carrying the virus. The most common clinical features of the disease include polyarthritis, arthralgia, myalgia, malaise, and low-grade fever [2] [3]. Joints that are often affected include the jaw, wrists, elbows, shoulders, knees, and ankles. Joints are usually painful, rather than swollen. Other, less common, symptoms include joint swelling, muscle aches and soreness, vesicular rash, headaches, lymphadenopathy, extreme fatigue, nausea, discomfort around the eyes and orbital area, sore throat, tingling in the palms or soles of the feet [4]. Signs and symptoms typically remit 2 to 6 weeks after infection but have been reported to last as long as one year or more (long-term symptoms will often wax and wane). Anxiety, emotional distress, depression, and disruption of daily activities of life may occur in individuals that have the long-term disease.

Fever
  • Useful links Avoiding mosquito bites Chikungunya virus infection Dengue fever Japanese encephalitis Kunjin/West Nile virus infection Malaria Murray Valley encephalitis Ross River virus infection Yellow fever Fight the bite When you have a notifiable condition[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
  • The most common clinical features of the disease include polyarthritis, arthralgia, myalgia, malaise, and low-grade fever. Joints that are often affected include the jaw, wrists, elbows, shoulders, knees, and ankles.[symptoma.com]
  • Symptoms of acute human infection may include rash, arthralgia, myalgia, lethargy and fever, and are similar to symptoms caused by Ross River virus infection.[phrp.com.au]
  • The disease may need to be distinguished from dengue, Ross River virus infection, infectious mononucleosis, rubella, Q fever, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Treatment Treatment is non-specific.[ausmed.com]
Chills
  • Fever, chills, headache and muscle pain. Joint swelling, stiffness and pain, especially in the mornings. A rash, usually on the trunk or limbs. The rash usually lasts for 7 - 10 days. A feeling of tiredness or weakness.[health.nsw.gov.au]
  • […] the Barmah Forest virus will not develop any symptoms, but others may develop: rash, usually on the trunk or limbs joint pain, which may persist for more than 6 months tiredness and weakness joint swelling and stiffness flu-like symptoms, with fever, chills[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
  • Flu-like symptoms (fever, chills and headache) are shown by some patients. Nearly all experience pain, swelling and stiffness in several joints (ankles, fingers, knees, wrists), though usually to a lesser extent than with Ross River virus infection.[ausmed.com]
Weakness
  • A feeling of tiredness or weakness. Symptoms usually develop about 7-10 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. Many people with the infection do not develop any symptoms of the disease.[health.nsw.gov.au]
  • Signs and symptoms Many people infected with the Barmah Forest virus will not develop any symptoms, but others may develop: rash, usually on the trunk or limbs joint pain, which may persist for more than 6 months tiredness and weakness joint swelling[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
  • Sometimes known as ‘bone-break fever’, dengue symptoms include elevated temperature, joint ache, severe headaches, weakness and skin rashes. Five per cent of cases are fatal.[medicalxpress.com]
Malaise
  • The most common clinical features of the disease include polyarthritis, arthralgia, myalgia, malaise, and low-grade fever. Joints that are often affected include the jaw, wrists, elbows, shoulders, knees, and ankles.[symptoma.com]
  • […] mosquito breeding, 2 and as a consequence might impact on the transmission of some mosquito borne diseases such as the Ross River virus infection. 3 Barmah Forest virus (BFV) infection, characterised by polyarthritis, myalgia, rash, fever, lethargy and malaise[jech.bmj.com]
  • Fever and malaise generally disappear within a few days to a week, but other symptoms such as joint pain may continue for six months or longer. [1] [9] The Barmah Forest virus causes similar symptoms as the Ross River virus, although they usually persist[ipfs.io]
  • , rash, jaundice Moderate Days/weeks Arthritis is abrupt in onset, in RA distribution preceding icteric phase Hepatitis C Moderate Malaise, jaundice Moderate Weeks, months in chronically infected patients Chronic arthralgia (20%); true arthritis (2–5%[racgp.org.au]
Heart Disease
  • […] hay fever Bites, burns, cuts and pests Blood, organ and tissue Cancer Challenging behaviour Chemicals and contaminants Diabetes Dementia Dental care Drugs End of life care Essure contraceptive device Falls and preventing harm from falls Food safety Heart[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
Myalgia
  • It causes rash, myalgia and arthralgia in humans and is usually diagnosed serologically. We developed a real-time PCR assay to detect BFV in an effort to improve diagnosis early in the course of infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The most common clinical features of the disease include polyarthritis, arthralgia, myalgia, malaise, and low-grade fever. Joints that are often affected include the jaw, wrists, elbows, shoulders, knees, and ankles.[symptoma.com]
  • Symptoms of acute human infection may include rash, arthralgia, myalgia, lethargy and fever, and are similar to symptoms caused by Ross River virus infection.[phrp.com.au]
  • Although not life-threatening, infection with either virus can cause arthritis, myalgia, and fatigue for 6 months or longer, resulting in substantial morbidity and economic impact.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Arthralgia
  • It causes rash, myalgia and arthralgia in humans and is usually diagnosed serologically. We developed a real-time PCR assay to detect BFV in an effort to improve diagnosis early in the course of infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The most common clinical features of the disease include polyarthritis, arthralgia, myalgia, malaise, and low-grade fever. Joints that are often affected include the jaw, wrists, elbows, shoulders, knees, and ankles.[symptoma.com]
  • Symptoms of acute human infection may include rash, arthralgia, myalgia, lethargy and fever, and are similar to symptoms caused by Ross River virus infection.[phrp.com.au]
  • It is an arbovirus transmitted to man by mosquitoes, causing a polyarthritis and arthralgias.[patient.info]
Myalgia
  • It causes rash, myalgia and arthralgia in humans and is usually diagnosed serologically. We developed a real-time PCR assay to detect BFV in an effort to improve diagnosis early in the course of infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The most common clinical features of the disease include polyarthritis, arthralgia, myalgia, malaise, and low-grade fever. Joints that are often affected include the jaw, wrists, elbows, shoulders, knees, and ankles.[symptoma.com]
  • Symptoms of acute human infection may include rash, arthralgia, myalgia, lethargy and fever, and are similar to symptoms caused by Ross River virus infection.[phrp.com.au]
  • Although not life-threatening, infection with either virus can cause arthritis, myalgia, and fatigue for 6 months or longer, resulting in substantial morbidity and economic impact.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Back Pain
  • Back pain is common and swollen lymph glands, dizziness and light-headedness also occur. A raised red skin rash lasting one to two weeks is common and more obvious than in Ross River virus infection.[ausmed.com]
  • The joints of the legs and hands are most often affected and back pain is also relatively common. The illness tends to subside over time with occasional relapses of joint pain and fatigue.[labtestsonline.org.au]
Skin Lesion
  • Rashes or skin lesions indicative of a mosquito bite may be identified during the physical exam.[symptoma.com]
  • Reactivation results in herpes zoster (shingles) characterized by grouped vesicular skin lesions in the distribution of 1 to 3 sensory dermatomes frequently Fetal infection after maternal varicella during the first or early second trimester of pregnancy[eurogospodarka.eu]
Exanthema
  • Parvovirus B19 Parvovirus B19 infections in children present as a viral exanthema, and in adults as a cause of arthralgia and arthritis.[racgp.org.au]
Vesicular Rash
  • Other, less common, symptoms include joint swelling, muscle aches and soreness, vesicular rash, headaches, lymphadenopathy, extreme fatigue, nausea, discomfort around the eyes and orbital area, sore throat, tingling in the palms or soles of the feet.[symptoma.com]
Suggestibility
  • Data obtained in the course of the study suggest that Barmah Forest virus infections may not be diagnosed correctly in many instances because of the similarity of the symptoms of this disease to those of epidemic polyarthritis and the small number of[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Probable case A probable case requires laboratory suggestive evidence only.[health.gov.au]
  • Two culture-positive (neutralizing antibody negative) samples were positive on first round PCR, while one sample (IgM and neutralizing antibody strongly positive, IgG negative) was positive on second round PCR, suggesting that viral RNA is detectable[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This finding is reassuring, suggesting that there has not been an extension of the range of competent disease vectors inland.[ojs.wpro.who.int]
Headache
  • Other, less common, symptoms include joint swelling, muscle aches and soreness, vesicular rash, headaches, lymphadenopathy, extreme fatigue, nausea, discomfort around the eyes and orbital area, sore throat, tingling in the palms or soles of the feet.[symptoma.com]
  • Fever, chills, headache and muscle pain. Joint swelling, stiffness and pain, especially in the mornings. A rash, usually on the trunk or limbs. The rash usually lasts for 7 - 10 days. A feeling of tiredness or weakness.[health.nsw.gov.au]
  • Forest virus will not develop any symptoms, but others may develop: rash, usually on the trunk or limbs joint pain, which may persist for more than 6 months tiredness and weakness joint swelling and stiffness flu-like symptoms, with fever, chills and headache[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
Lethargy
  • The most common symptoms were lethargy (89%), joint pain (82%) and rash (68%). These were also generally the first symptoms to appear.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms of acute human infection may include rash, arthralgia, myalgia, lethargy and fever, and are similar to symptoms caused by Ross River virus infection.[phrp.com.au]
  • […] salt marsh mosquito breeding, 2 and as a consequence might impact on the transmission of some mosquito borne diseases such as the Ross River virus infection. 3 Barmah Forest virus (BFV) infection, characterised by polyarthritis, myalgia, rash, fever, lethargy[jech.bmj.com]
  • It can appear as a mild illness for a few days, or linger as aching joints and lethargy for many months.[portnews.com.au]
  • Often people experience severe tiredness (lethargy) and they may feel depressed. Symptoms subside eventually and leave few or no after-effects.[fightthebite.com.au]
Dizziness
  • Back pain is common and swollen lymph glands, dizziness and light-headedness also occur. A raised red skin rash lasting one to two weeks is common and more obvious than in Ross River virus infection.[ausmed.com]
  • Common: * Chest congestion cough difficulty in eathing loss of appetite nausea vomiting yellow eyes or skin Virus Ffff Kills Bacteria Which Most Mouthwash dizziness fever sneezing sore throat pain or burning while urinating frequent urge to urinate.[eurogospodarka.eu]
  • Apart from that it gives you flu like symptoms (not the coughs and sniffles though): fever, headaches, dizziness, tiredness, generally feeling like crap... I'm sure you know what it's like to have a bad flu.[kimberleyaustralia.com]
Tremor
  • […] bottles of 70 percent of the joints or back Swollen glands Testicular pain Tingling Tremor If your child free of the virus. Avian influenza virus or a tool bar? Master Keylogger, free download Curse Client 5.[gamba-project.eu]
  • Symptoms of encephalitis are drowsiness, stiff neck, disorientation, convulsions, tremors, coma, and, in some cases, death. The alphaviruses are transmitted to humans by an arthropod vector, usually mosquitoes.[web.stanford.edu]

Workup

Diagnosis of Barmah Forest virus infection is based on clinical presentation and serological testing. Workup begins with a history and physical exam. Patients should be asked about any recent travel to Australia in particular, or to other developing countries worldwide. Rashes or skin lesions indicative of a mosquito bite may be identified during the physical exam. Routine laboratory testing (e.g., serum chemistry, hematology testing including complete blood count with differential count) and radiology tests are usually unaltered by the viral infection and therefore are not useful for the diagnosis of Barmah Forest virus. A definitive diagnosis is achieved through serology tests, in particular, the observation of increasing immunoglobulin (Ig) G levels [5].

Many of the clinical features of Barmah Forest virus are similar to those of Ross River virus disease [6]. Diagnosis and differentiation of the two diseases can only be confirmed through serological testing (specifically, the measurement of antibodies, IgM, and IgG levels) [7].

Serological tests include:

  • IgG seroconversion or an increase in antibody levels or a rapid rise (at least four-times rise in the level) of IgG titre to Barmah Forest virus, over a two week period [8]
  • Detection of Barmah Forest virus-specific IgM in the absence of Ross River virus IgM (unless Barmah Forest virus IgG is also detected)
  • Detection of both Barmah Forest virus-specific IgM and Barmah Forest virus IgG

Less common (and less readily available) tests that may be performed to facilitate diagnosis include testing for Barmah Forest virus nucleic acid (RNA), isolation of the virus itself [9], and microneutralization antibody test [10].

All of the aforementioned tests provide a clear distinction between infections with alphaviruses, including Barmah Forest virus.

The clinician should keep in mind that antibodies to the Barmah Forest virus may remain detectable for up to 4 years after infection [11]. Additionally, false positive results may occur in patients with comorbidities such as autoimmune disease.

Treatment

  • No treatment led to more than slight relief of symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment Treatment is non-specific. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines, such as ibuprofen, appear to provide the most relief. Paracetamol or aspirin (not in children less than 12 years old) may also be used.[ausmed.com]
  • Treatment There is no specific antiviral treatment available. General recommendations include controlling fever and pain with paracetamol and increasing fluid intake.[sahealth.sa.gov.au]

Prognosis

  • A possible association between the presence of a rash and improved prognosis needs further investigation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Read about treatment, prognosis, symptoms, causes, and diagnosis.Medikamente. Grundsätzlich ist zwischen zwei Prinzipien bei der medikamentösen Therapie der cP zu unterscheiden.[jyqunanife.xpg.uol.com.br]
  • Read about treatment, prognosis, symptoms, causes, and diagnosis.Reactive arthritis happens most commonly after infections of the genital and gastrointestinal tracts. Symptoms.[uzorisaca.xpg.uol.com.br]
  • Trying meditation or yoga may help you feel better.Learn more from WebMD about various drugs used to treat arthritis, from NSAIDs to chemotherapy.Read about juvenile idiopathic arthritis (juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, JRA) treatment, diagnosis, prognosis[zumexydote.xpg.uol.com.br]
  • Prognosis Progressive resolution over 3-6 months is usual. [ 9, 10 ] A prolonged relapsing-remitting course with arthralgias, tiredness and depression over years following diagnosis has been described.[patient.info]

Etiology

  • A longitudinal study of respiratory viruses and bacteria in the etiology of acute otitis media with effusion. ‎ Seite 57 - Isolation of St. Louis encephalitis viruses from mosquitoes in the Tampa Bay area of Florida during the epidemic of 1962. ‎[books.google.de]
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS Etiology: RRV is a small, enveloped virus with the genome being single-stranded positive-sense RNA ( Johnston and Peters, 1996 ).[scialert.net]

Epidemiology

  • Seite 301 - Studies of the epidemiology of arthropod-borne virus infections at Mitchell River Mission, Cape York Peninsula, North Queensland. IV. Arbovirus infections of mosquitoes and mammals, 1967-1969. ‎[books.google.de]
  • Surveillance should be strengthened to improve epidemiological understandings of mosquito-borne Barmah Forest virus infection.[ojs.wpro.who.int]
  • Copyright information: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health Read the full text or download the PDF: Log in using your username and password[jech.bmj.com]
  • "Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus - the facts - Infectious Diseases Epidemiology & Surveillance - Department of Health and Human services, Victoria, Australia". ideas.health.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 2015-04-16.[ipfs.io]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Identifying and understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms.[givulacevamyzedas.xpg.uol.com.br]
  • Identifying and understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms. Learn about reactive arthritis, a chronic, systemic rheumatic disease.[uzorisaca.xpg.uol.com.br]
  • Identifying and understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms.Reaktive Arthritis on ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists.Official Full-Text Publication: Vorstellungen zur Pathogenese der juvenilen idiopathischen Arthritis on ResearchGate[muburuto.xpg.uol.com.br]
  • Identifying and understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms.Reactive arthritis of shoulder; Reactive arthritis of spine; Reactive arthropathy of shoulder; Reiter s disease; ICD-10-CM Coding Rules.Reumatoïde artritis (RA) is een auto-immuunziekte: het[jyqunanife.xpg.uol.com.br]

Prevention

  • This article reviews some of the issues that patients raise in relation to both Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus disease including the source of infection, the duration of symptoms and measures to prevent infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention Exclusion of cases from childcare, preschool, school or work is not necessary but cases should avoid being bitten by mosquitoes while they are unwell. There is no vaccine to prevent infection.[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
  • A combination of plenty of rest and gentle exercise is important to keep joints moving and to prevent over tiredness. Emotional stress, physical fatigue and alcohol can make the condition worse. Prevention No vaccine is available.[ausmed.com]

References

Article

  1. Heymann, D, ed. 2004. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, 18th edition. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, pp 35-37.
  2. Barmah Forest virus. Lancet. 1991; 337:948-50.
  3. Phillips DA, Murray JR, Aaskov JG, Wiemers MA. Clinical and subclinical Barmah Forest virus infection in Queensland. Med J Azat 1990;152:463-6.
  4. Sowden D, McCormack JG. Barmah Forest virus. Aust NZJ Med. 1990; 20:750.
  5. Flexman JP1, Smith DW, Mackenzie JS, et al. A comparison of the diseases caused by Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus. Med J Aust. 1998;169:159-63.
  6. Mackenzie JS, Smith DW. Mosquito-borne viruses and epidemic polyarthritis. Med J Aust. 1996;164:90-3.
  7. Hills S. Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus infection. Aust Fam Phys. 1996;25:1822-4.
  8. Hawkes RA, Boughton CR, Naim HM, Myrick BA, Ramsay LG. Barmah Forest virus infections in humans in New South Wales. Med J Aust. 1987;146: 569-73.
  9. Phillips DA, Murray JR, Aaskov JG, Wiemers MA. Clinical and subclinical Barmah Forest virus infection in Queensland. Med J Azat. 1990; 152: 463-66.
  10. Boughton CR, Hawkes RA, Naim HM. Illness caused by a Barmah Forest-like virus in New South Wales. Med J Awst. 1988; 148: 146-47.
  11. Dalgarno L, Short NJ, Hardy CM, Bell JR, Strauss JH, Marshall ID. Characterization of Barmah Forest virus: an alphavirus with some unusual properties. Virology. 1984;133: 416-26.

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Last updated: 2019-07-11 20:14