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Basal Ganglia Lesion

Lesions in the Basal Ganglia


Presentation

  • This paper describes a diabetic dialysis patient presenting two episodes of symmetric basal ganglia lesions occurring 18 months apart, and discusses the MR imaging findings and the pathogenesis of this condition.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Case 2 A 46-year-old male patient presented with sudden onset of slurred speech, slow gait and loss of balance. His medical history revealed insulin resistance and ESRD.[jneuro.com]
  • Mixed hypo- and hyperintensity on T1-weighted MRI could present in the syndrome of acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uremia with hyperglycemia associated dyskinesia.[mdsabstracts.org]
  • […] than a distinct illness Unlike Alzheimer’s, it has a relatively rapid development of dementia It is accompanied by mild extrapyramidal features such as: Masked face Bradykinesia Resting tremor Gait impairment pronounced enough to lead to falls Can also present[brainaacn.org]
Uremia
  • Acute movement disorder with bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uremia.[annalsofian.org]
  • Mixed hypo- and hyperintensity on T1-weighted MRI could present in the syndrome of acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uremia with hyperglycemia associated dyskinesia.[mdsabstracts.org]
  • Still correction of uremia, metabolic acidosis and blood glucose levels along with supportive therapy has been the main focus of management.[jneuro.com]
  • Acute movement disorder with bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uremia. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2011;1:211-3. [ PUBMED ] 2. Wang HC, Brown P, Lees AJ. Acute movement disorders with bilateral basal ganglia lesions in uremia.[clinicalimagingscience.org]
Tremor
  • ., extrapyramidal) injury involve the following involuntary movement disorders: Parkinsonism – combination of resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia/akinesia, and postural abnormalities Athetosis – slow continuous, writhing movements of the fingers, hands[brainaacn.org]
  • During follow up the tremor and gait imbalance resolved within 7 days and recurrent episode of hypoglycemia was not observed.[jneuro.com]
  • This distinguishes it from other disorders involving tremor in which the tremor persists during movement (essential tremor) or is specifically associated with movement (intention tremor in cerebellar disorders).[courses.washington.edu]
Chorea
  • In 39 patients, chorea had ameliorated completely. The remaining 14 cases showed some improvement during the follow-up period. The chorea recurred in seven patients. C-H-BG is a benign disorder affecting the elderly.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He remained free of chorea and slurred speech and maintained normal mental status during a 4-month follow-up.[clinicalimagingscience.org]
  • Hyperglycemia associated unilateral predominant chorea could demonstrate with symmetrical T1–hyperintense lesions in basal ganglia on brain MRI.[mdsabstracts.org]
  • […] injury involve the following involuntary movement disorders: Parkinsonism – combination of resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia/akinesia, and postural abnormalities Athetosis – slow continuous, writhing movements of the fingers, hands, face, and throat Chorea[brainaacn.org]
  • The model for choreiform disorders is Huntington's chorea.[dartmouth.edu]
Dystonia
  • To assess the efficacy of epidural motor cortex stimulation (MCS) on dystonia, spasticity, pain, and quality of life in patients with dystonia secondary to a focal basal ganglia (BG) lesion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Truncal dyskinesia, right side predominant limbs chorea, cervical dystonia and abnormal gait gradually developed. Laboratory data showed hyperglycemia (sugar: 436 mg/dl).[mdsabstracts.org]
  • G24.01 Drug induced subacute dyskinesia G24.02 Drug induced acute dystonia G24.09 Other drug induced dystonia G24.1 Genetic torsion dystonia G24.2 Idiopathic nonfamilial dystonia G24.3 Spasmodic torticollis G24.4 Idiopathic orofacial dystonia Reimbursement[icd10data.com]
  • Dystonia [ edit ] Dystonia is hyperkinetic movement disorder that is characterized by involuntary movement and the slowing of intentional movement.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Describe - Choreiform, Athetoid, Ballismus, Dystonia, Dyskinesias, Hyperkinetic Disorders (cont.)[quizlet.com]
Stroke
  • Prognosis of Basal Ganglia Stroke Approximately 33% of all stroke cases are deadly.[healthfixit.com]
  • In addition, patients with hemorrhagic stroke are usually more affected than those with ischemic stroke, which warrants further study with homogeneous group of patients.[omicsonline.org]
  • The patient had a 7-year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic stroke and ESRD with regular hemodialysis (thrice a week) since 16 months.[jneuro.com]
  • […] indirect pathway) in huntington's disease there is increased output of... thalamus and cortex (hyperkinesia) which basal ganglia disorder is characterized by wild flailing movement of the arm and leg of one side... hemiballismus hemiballismus is... a stroke[memorize.com]
  • Such conditions include: Carbon monoxide poisoning Drug overdose Head injury Infection Liver disease Metabolic problems Multiple sclerosis (MS) Poisoning with copper, manganese, or other heavy metals Stroke Tumors A common cause of these findings is chronic[medlineplus.gov]
Resting Tremor
  • ., extrapyramidal) injury involve the following involuntary movement disorders: Parkinsonism – combination of resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia/akinesia, and postural abnormalities Athetosis – slow continuous, writhing movements of the fingers, hands[brainaacn.org]
  • Low-amplitude bilateral upper limb resting tremor, bradykinesia and ataxic gait was present. Laboratory investigations indicated raised blood urea, 76 mg/dL (17-43) and serum creatinine, 8.3 mg/L (0.5-1.1) levels.[jneuro.com]
  • […] thalamus and cortex rigidity, increased tone, slow reduced movements, bradykinesia/hypokinesia, stooped posture, resting tremor are all symptoms of....[memorize.com]
  • Symptoms The disease is diagnosed by observing a set of characteristic symptoms that affect motor control: resting tremor, bradykinesia, and hypertonia. Resting tremor is an oscillating movement that occurs when the patient is trying to be still.[courses.washington.edu]
  • tremor in jaw, lip, tongue Rigidity - cogwheel rigidity Bradykinesia - freezing Hypokinesia/akinesia - reduced frequency of swallow Hypokinetic Dysarthria: Other Neuromuscular Deficits Resting tremors of head, limbs, pill-rolling Festinating gait Decrease[ucs.louisiana.edu]

Treatment

  • Each triennial meeting of IBAGS brings together basic research scientists from all disciplines as well as clinicians who are actively involved in the treatment of basal ganglia disorders, to discuss the most recent advances in the field and to generate[books.google.com]
  • Li et al. reported that there is no specific treatment for this condition thus we did not prescribed any treatment in addition to insulin injections and hemodialysis [ 10 ].[jneuro.com]
  • Results : A 32-year-old lady with history of type II diabetic mellitus, hypertension, old myocardial infarction post treatment of coronary artery bypass grafting, end stage renal disease under peritoneal dialysis for years.[mdsabstracts.org]
  • Arnon R, Calderon JF, Schilsky M et al (2007) Wilson disease in children: serum aminotransferases and urinary copper on triethylene tetramine dihydrochloride (trientine) treatment.[link.springer.com]
  • Presently, treatment consists of calcium supplementation and the use of vitamin D analogs, but PTH replacement is under investigation. Treatment is important to prevent progression of BGC. Competing interests None declared. References 1.[bcmj.org]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis of Basal Ganglia Stroke Approximately 33% of all stroke cases are deadly.[healthfixit.com]
  • Although usually symptoms tend to spontaneously regress, it is believed that it might indicate poor prognosis and advanced disease [ 2 , 8 ].[jneuro.com]
  • - Secondary progressive disease - gradual neurological deterioration with or without relapses - Primary progressive disease - nearly continuous neurological deterioration from onset of symptoms -worst prognosis - Treatment - acute episodes with corticosteroids[quizlet.com]
  • […] symmetric signal-intensity alterations in the mammillary bodies, medial thalami, tectal plate, and periaqueductal area. 1 – 4 Selective involvement of the putamen has been reported only in the pediatric population and is considered an indicator of poor prognosis[ajnr.org]
  • The extent of white matter involvement, sometimes best depicted at diffusion weighted imaging, is a factor of poor prognosis [ 1 ] .[em-consulte.com]

Etiology

  • […] stop Results from lack of dopamine in basal ganglia circuits Hyperkinesia - involuntary movements Excessive, unpredictable increases in muscle tone and movement Result of excessive activity in dopaminergic nerve fibers Hypokinetic Dysarthria: Common Etiologies[ucs.louisiana.edu]
  • As such, diagnosis of the underlying etiology may be difficult to achieve at imaging.[em-consulte.com]
  • Basal ganglion lesions in Psychiatric Diseases• ADHD : – Although the etiology of ADHD yet has to be determined, there is a growing consensus that the condition involves functional and anatomical dysfunction in the brains frontal cortex and basal ganglia[slideshare.net]
  • Alte investigatii · teste sceening pentru evaluarea vazului si auzului; · teste psihologice. 1.11 Tratament Tratamentul PC trebuie sa tina cont de polimorfismul clinic si etiologic, de faptul ca exista o leziune cerebrala stabilizata, cicatriciala, care[rasfoiesc.com]
  • This has led to speculation concerning the etiology of parkinsonism and to clinical trials of both entities to determine a possible prophylactic effect in idiopathic parkinsonism.[dartmouth.edu]

Epidemiology

  • Pagina 15 - Schiffer RB, Babigian HM: Behavioral disorders in multiple sclerosis, temporal lobe epilepsy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an epidemiologic study. ‎[books.google.it]
  • Moreover, some epidemiological studies suggest that epilepsy is observed at a remarkably low rate in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) compared to an age-matched normal population [55-57].[jle.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Cools Springer Science & Business Media , 03.05.2010 - 608 Seiten 0 Rezensionen The aim of the International Basal Ganglia Society (IBAGS) is to further our understanding of normal basal ganglia function and the pathophysiology of disorders of the basal[books.google.com]
  • Its pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Uremic toxins, metabolic acidosis and diabetic microangiopathy are among the factors believed to contribute to its pathogenesis.[jneuro.com]
  • This research topic aims to bring together the most recent advances related to the pathophysiology of the basal ganglia and movement disorders.[frontiersin.org]
  • Wichmann T and DeLong MR (1996) Functional and pathophysiological models of the BG. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 6: 751–758.[els.net]
  • In 1972, Gastaut and Broughton [4], introduced the concept of corticonuclear sectors as a fundamental pathophysiological property of the propagation patterns of partial seizures.[jle.com]

Prevention

  • Prevention of Stroke Any forms of CVA are dangerous to face. The best way to never experience stroke is prevention. In order to do that, risk factors (as enumerated in the earlier section of this article) to stroke should be eliminated.[healthfixit.com]
  • We would like to highlight these two cases to raise awareness of this syndrome and to emphasize the importance of adequate dialysis, prevention and correction of hypotension, acid-base and electrolyte imbalances and hypo- and hyperglycemia factors.[jneuro.com]
  • Treatment is important to prevent progression of BGC. Competing interests None declared. References 1. Rumboldt Z, Castillo M, Huang B, et al. (eds). Brain imaging with MRI and CT: An image pattern approach.[bcmj.org]
  • They are unable to make the appropriate kinetic-postural adjustment necessary to prevent them from falling.[dartmouth.edu]
  • Or if you have migraines, you can take medicine to both prevent and treat them. If you are anxious or depressed, see your doctor. There are medicines to help with mood issues.[webmd.com]

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