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Baylisascariasis

Baylisascaris Infection


Presentation

  • Typically, B. procyonis neural larva migrans presents as acute fulminant eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Once invasion of the central nervous system has occurred, the prognosis is grave with or without treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Patients typically present with lethargy, irritability, somnolence, and/or visual changes, paralysis, seizures, coma, and death.[visualdx.com]
  • Herein, we report a case of a 12-year-old female resident of the Bronx in New York City, who presented with pan-uveitis and vision loss. Initial evaluation for etiologic causes was nondiagnostic.[ajtmh.org]
  • This case report of Baylisascaris procyonis confirms the presentation for the first time in an ape and documents the difficulty in antemortem diagnosis of neural larval migrans.[bioone.org]
  • Presentation on theme: "Baylisascariasis Raccoon Roundworm. Overview Organism History Epidemiology Transmission Disease in Humans Disease in Animals Prevention and Control Actions.[slideplayer.com]
Increased Susceptibility to Infections
  • The male predominance is probably related more to play habits rather than an inherent increased susceptibility to infection. Conceivably, raccoon latrines may make particularly attractive play areas for inquisitive infants and children ( 30 ).[cmr.asm.org]
Rigor
  • Despite immediate control methods including antihelminthic treatment of animals and rigorous environmental sanitation, recurrent ascarid infections occurred in three young raccoons three months after control methods were instituted [ 61 ].[omicsonline.org]
  • This model achieved more accurate infection counts and enabled a more rigorous evaluation of comparative effectiveness of interventions.[worldwidescience.org]
Crying
  • For the next several months we watched him slowly progress from a child that did not move and had a blank stare on his face, to a child that could make eye contact and cry. this first cry was the best thing us as his parents could hear.[cavansprognosis.blogspot.com]
Tachypnea
  • It is presumed that the development of dyspnea and tachypnea, which is seen in primates 3 to 5 days after experimental infection, is secondary to early pulmonary migration ( 32 , 33 ).[cmr.asm.org]
Gagging
  • […] bayberry bayberry bark Baycol Bayer gag Bayer, Joseph F.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication.[worldwidescience.org]
Cutaneous Larva Migrans
  • Hookworm Infections Cutaneous Larva Migrans. Albendazole is used for the treatment of cutaneous larva migrans (creeping eruption) caused by dog and cat hookworms.[sarungkuadalima.blogspot.com]
  • G. spinigerum larvae are large, 2.5 mm–12.5mm in length and 0.5–1.2mm in width and can be visualized through the skin in cases of cutaneous larva migrans and in the retina in ocular larva migrans.[omicsonline.org]
Grieving
  • PubMed Google Scholar Glickman LT, Schantz PM, Grieve RB. 1986. Toxocariasis. In: Walls KW, Schantz PM (Eds.), Immunodiagnosis of Parasitic Diseases, Vol 1. Helminthic Diseases . New York: Academic Press, pp. 201–231.[link.springer.com]
Radiculopathy
  • Gnathostoma spinigerum – myeloencephalitis, focal cerebral hemorrhage with xanthochromia, painful radiculopathy, migrating cutaneous masses/lesions.[visualdx.com]
  • In addition to a prolonged incubation period and the migratory nature of disease, another pathognomonic feature of GNS is a radiculomyelitis characterized by initial painful radiculopathy followed by paralysis of one or more extremities and felt due to[omicsonline.org]
  • Gnathostomiasis, similar to baylisascariasis, may be associated with severe neurologic sequelae and a poor prognosis but is characterized by myeloencephalitis, focal cerebral hemorrhage (with xanthochromia), painful radiculopathy, and migrating cutaneous[cmr.asm.org]
Neck Stiffness
  • In their descriptive analysis of NAS in 12 travelers returning to the US from Jamaica, Slom et al. reported the most commonly presenting symptoms as headache (100%), visual disturbances including photophobia (92%), neck stiffness or pain (83%), fatigue[omicsonline.org]
Hyperesthesia
  • Following an incubation period of approximately 2 weeks, patients with NAS will typically present as aseptic meningitis with combinations of severe headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, low-grade to no fever (especially in adults), and asymmetrical hyperesthesias[omicsonline.org]
Paresthesia
  • The patients usually presented with severe headache, stiff neck, paresthesias (in most adults), and mild or no fever [ 39 ].[omicsonline.org]

Workup

  • The child was hospitalized, and a workup for encephalitis was initiated. He was hemodynamically stable and had flaccid tone, with inability to bear weight. No visible rashes were found.[go.galegroup.com]
  • An extensive metabolic workup yielded normal results, except for elevation of serum lactate. The electroencephalographic results were also normal.[ajnr.org]
  • Epidemiologic Field Studies Field studies have played an important part in the diagnostic workup of several of the documented cases of B. procyonis NLM, have contributed greatly to our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the condition[cmr.asm.org]
Fasciola Hepatica
  • Many other parasites have uncommonly caused a nonintense eosinophilic pleocytosis in the CSF with less than 10 eosinophils/mm3, including Dirofilaria immitis, Echinococcus granulosa, Fasciola hepatica, Paragonimus westermani, Onchocerca volvulus, and[omicsonline.org]
  • First autochthonous Dirofilaria repens infection ofa dog in the Netherlands]. 20055025 Ethanol poisoning as a differential diagnosis in a hunter's dog with tetraplegia. 24284 The efficiency of diamphenethide in controlling natural infestations of Fasciola[nlm.life]
  • RESULTS: Fasciola hepatica infection was diagnosed in 30 patients (24 females; mean age: 42.6 years) between January 2008 and February 2011.[worldwidescience.org]
Paragonimus Westermani
  • Many other parasites have uncommonly caused a nonintense eosinophilic pleocytosis in the CSF with less than 10 eosinophils/mm3, including Dirofilaria immitis, Echinococcus granulosa, Fasciola hepatica, Paragonimus westermani, Onchocerca volvulus, and[omicsonline.org]
Wuchereria Bancrofti
  • Although diethylcarbamazine (available in the US from the CDC) is considered the drug of choice for the treatment of filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi ivermectin has been used (with or without albendazole) for the treatment of[sarungkuadalima.blogspot.com]
Brugia Malayi
  • Although diethylcarbamazine (available in the US from the CDC) is considered the drug of choice for the treatment of filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi ivermectin has been used (with or without albendazole) for the treatment of[sarungkuadalima.blogspot.com]

Treatment

  • Once invasion of the central nervous system has occurred, the prognosis is grave with or without treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] following treatment of filarial infections.[sarungkuadalima.blogspot.com]
  • […] resulted in severe diarrhoea and vomiting, so treatment was stopped. ( J13 .21.w2) Dichlorvos (19 mg/lb body weight) was effective, with worms being passed in the faeces following treatment, and faecal egg counts reduced to zero.[wildpro.twycrosszoo.org]
  • Drug therapy Albendazole Prophylactic use in humans Albendazole and corticosteroids Clinical patients Early diagnosis and treatment key Improvement may not occur despite treatment in advanced disease Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State[slideserve.com]

Prognosis

  • Once invasion of the central nervous system has occurred, the prognosis is grave with or without treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Diagnostic Pearls Subscription Required Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls Neural larva migrans and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis: Angiostrongylus cantonensis – more associated with meningitis than meningoencephalitis; typically more benign course and prognosis[visualdx.com]
  • Prognosis: grave. Pathogenesis Etiology Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis Baylisascaris procyonis : Guinea pig is an aberrant host. The roundworm’s definitive host is the raccoon, Procyon lotor .[vetstream.com]
  • His prognosis was not good, the doctors did not have a clue what was going on or how to treat him.[cavansprognosis.blogspot.com]
  • Treatment of Baylisascariasis (Raccoon Disease) in Dogs The prognosis for dogs with a neural larvae migration is guarded. Corticosteroids will be administered to control the acute effects and the inflammation that accompanies a neural diagnosis.[wagwalking.com]

Etiology

  • Pathogenesis Etiology Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis Baylisascaris procyonis : Guinea pig is an aberrant host. The roundworm’s definitive host is the raccoon, Procyon lotor .[vetstream.com]
  • Initial evaluation for etiologic causes was nondiagnostic. Serology for anti- Baylisascaris procyonis antibodies in serum and vitreous fluid were both positive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of vitreous fluid was positive for HSV-2.[ajtmh.org]
  • Because of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, thorough analyses were conducted for immunologic and infectious etiologies.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • Etiology: Infection of rabbits occurs with the raccoon ascarid, Baylisascaris procyonis. Transmission: Transmission occurs by ingestion of bedding or hay contaminated with raccoon feces.[dora.missouri.edu]
  • It was concluded that B. procyonis larvae have marked ability to produce OLM in subhuman primates following oral infection and should be considered as a possible etiology in human ocular disease.[iovs.arvojournals.org]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiologic study of human cases of neural larva migrans demonstrate that contact with raccoon feces or an environment contaminated by infective eggs and geophagia or pica are the most important risk factors for infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Overview Organism History Epidemiology Transmission Disease in Humans Disease in Animals Prevention and Control Actions.[slideplayer.com]
  • Shih, Epidemiologic studies of eosinophilic meningitis in southern Taiwan , Am J Trop Med Hyg, 24 (1975), pp. 447–454.[omicsonline.org]
  • Epidemiology Baylisascaris procyonis ova shed in raccoon feces; these are very hardy in the environment: Ingestion of infective (embryonated) ova. Bedding, habitat and even food could become contaminated if raccoons have access to any of these.[vetstream.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology After ingestion of embryonated ova, parasite larvae migrate through a wide variety of tissues, including liver, heart, lungs, brains, eyes, as guinea pigs are aberrant hosts.[vetstream.com]
  • Nevertheless, eosinophilic meningitis (EM) remained rarely reported until Rosen and co-investigators first described the pathophysiology of neuroangiostrongyliasis (NAS) in association with neural larval migrans caused by the infective third-stage larva[omicsonline.org]
  • The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host...[worldwidescience.org]

Prevention

  • Author information 1 Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012 33 Prevention and Control Dogs –Heartworm/nematode preventatives –Regular fecal examinations Captive animals –Prevent contact with raccoons –Clean cages regularly –Quarantine, test, deworm[slideplayer.com]
  • University, 2012 Prevention and Control Dogs Heartworm/nematode preventatives Regular fecal examinations Captive animals Prevent contact with raccoons Clean cages regularly Quarantine, test, deworm Treat exposed animals Center for Food Security and Public[slideserve.com]
  • If raccoons live in your area you can prevent them from coming in or near your home by: preventing any access to food, garbage, or animal feed, seal off access to attics and basements, eliminate sources of water, remove bird feeders, and keep things like[crittercontrolofboston.com]

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