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Biliary Carcinoma


Presentation

  • The p21 protein is present on the inner aspect of the plasma membrane of a variety of cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present case supports a relationship between anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction and biliary carcinogenesis that may affect the extracystic biliary tree.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The aim of the present study is to clarify the effectiveness of GEM combined with CDDP and 5FU (GFP) therapy for unresectable biliary carcinoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Analysis of the 24 cases in which carcinoma developed shows that stones were present in the cyst in 25% of cases. The most common cell type was adenocarcinoma (70%) and the most common site for tumor was in the posterior cyst wall (57%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Samuel M, Spitz L (1996) Choledochal cyst: varied clinical presentations and long-term results of surgery. Euro J Pediatr Surg 6:78–81 CrossRef 67.[springermedizin.de]
Jaundice
  • These include: Bile ducts cysts Certain liver diseases Chronic bile duct inflammation Chronic inflammatory bowel conditions, such as ulcerative colitis Congenital abnormalities of the biliary tract Infection caused by a parasite called liver fluke Jaundice[docdoc.com.sg]
  • It is important to note that jaundice is a common symptom for many conditions. Your doctor may need to do several diagnostic tests to find the exact cause of the jaundice. (See the Diagnosis section for a complete list.)[cancer.net]
  • Relief From Jaundice We use a range of specialized techniques to open blocked bile ducts and help relieve jaundice, including stent placement and surgery.[dukehealth.org]
  • Extrahepatic obstructive jaundice due to colorectal cancer. Am J Gastroenterol . 1988;(83):267–70. PubMed Chu PG, Schwarz RE, Lau SK,.[acgcasereports.gi.org]
  • Jaundice: For bile duct carcinoma, the bile tract will be blocked by tumor and causes jaundice; jaundice would get worse gradually without pain-free for most of the cases; besides, the degree of jaundice is definitely related with the position of obstruct[moderncancerhospital.com]
Hepatomegaly
  • Other features include fatigue, acholic stool, a palpable mass, hepatomegaly, or a distended gallbladder (Courvoisier sign, with distal cholangiocarcinoma).[msdmanuals.com]

Workup

  • Provides all the necessary tools to make a comprehensive diagnostic workup including data from ancillary techniques and molecular findings whenever appropriate.[books.google.com]
Salmonella Typhi
  • Chronic and acute infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella Typhi: understanding the carrier state. Nature Reviews: Microbiology. 2011 Jan; 9 (1):9–14. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 32. Saetta AA.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Four patients treated with external-beam plus intraluminal brachytherapy had a clinical response (2 partial, 2 complete) after treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: UFT 300 mg/m2/d plus oral leucovorin 90 mg/d administered for 28 days repeated every 35 days is ineffective in the treatment of advanced biliary carcinoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Forty-one patients were assessable for response, 3 responded to treatment (response rate: 6.5 %; CI(95%) 1.3-17.9%). Median survival was 4.6 months (CI(95%) 2.9-8.2 months), the 1-year survival rate was 21.8%.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment of biliary tract cancer follows the same protocols used in treating any type of cancer. The main treatment is surgery in which the malignant tumor is removed.[docdoc.com.sg]
  • The clinicopathological features and surgical treatment of biliary carcinoma around the major hepatic duct confluence arising after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) due to initial bile duct carcinoma are described in three patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • BACKGROUND: Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that influences chemotherapy effectiveness and prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Postoperative adjuvant therapy should be given to patients with UICC stages II and III biliary carcinomas because of their high rate of recurrence and the poor prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Tumors of the biliary tract are rare, and their survival prognosis is short since diagnosis is often made at advanced stages of the disease. Diagnosis remains difficult because symptoms are often unspecific.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Advanced biliary carcinoma have poor prognosis and chemotherapy has been shown to have little impact.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis of Cancer of the Bile Duct (Cholangiocarcinoma Biliary Cancer) Cholangiocarcinoma prognosis is often poor as most tumours are unsuitable for resection.[myvmc.com]

Etiology

  • Etiology and risk factors Ulcerative colitis is a clear risk factor for bile duct tumors. Patients with ulcerative colitis have an incidence of bile duct cancer that is 9-21 times higher than that of the general population.[aboutcancer.com]
  • Etiology Carcinoma of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts is more common in Eastern Europe and Latin American countries, and in the yellow races. It occurs frequently in older age groups (6th to 7th decades of life).[atlasgeneticsoncology.org]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology of Gallbladder Disease: Cholelithiasis and Cancer. Gut Liver. 2012;6(2):172–187. 19 Abbreviations: GB, gallbladder; N, North; S, South.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology of gallbladder disease: cholelithiasis and cancer. Gut Liver. 2012;6(2):172-87. [ Links ] Fonte de financiamento: nenhuma.[scielo.br]
  • Wiseman K, Buczkowski AK, Chung SW et al (2005) Epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, and outcomes of choledochal cysts in adults in an urban environment. Am J Surg 189:527–531 PubMed CrossRef 85.[springermedizin.de]
  • Epidemiology Gender Bile duct tumors are found in an equal number of men and women. Age Extrahepatic bile duct tumors occur primarily in older individuals; the median age at diagnosis is 70 years.[aboutcancer.com]
  • Epidemiology One of the common carcinomas worldwide Clinics The clinical symptoms are affected by the complications such as gallstones and cholangitis.[atlasgeneticsoncology.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Matsumoto Y, Fujii H, Itakura J (2003) Pancreaticobiliary maljunction: pathophysiological and clinical aspects and the impact on biliary carcinogenesis. Langenbeck Arch Surg 388:122–131 95.[springermedizin.de]
  • Contraction is stimulated by the hormone cholecystokinin-pancreozymin (CKK), which is produced by endocrine cells in the intestinal wall and by acetylcholine from parasympathetic fibres of the vagus nerve. 5 Pathophysiology The most frequent disease of[flexikon.doccheck.com]
  • In: Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. . Accessed Feb. 22, 2016. Rizvi S, et al.[mayoclinic.org]

Prevention

  • Inhibition of COX-2/PGE(2) production prevented the second, but not the first, phase of EGFR and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, implicating COX-2/PGE(2) in the second phase of phosphorylation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Learn about the risk factors for bile duct cancer and what you might be able to do to help lower your risk. Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Know the signs and symptoms of bile duct cancer.[cancer.org]
  • Prevention There's no way to prevent cholangiocarcinoma (bile duct cancer). But you may reduce your risk of the disease if you: Stop smoking. Smoking is linked to an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma. If you smoke, stop.[mayoclinic.org]
  • Prevention Other than the avoidance of infections caused by liver flukes, there are no known preventions for this cancer. Resources Books Abeloff, Martin D., editor. "Cholangiocarcinoma." In Clinical Oncology. 2nd ed.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • You will be given antibiotics before and after the procedure, to help prevent infection. You will need to stay in hospital for at least one night afterwards. Biopsy Your doctor will usually recommend having a biopsy of the tumour.[macmillan.org.uk]

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