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Birth Injury


  • G&E attorneys help families seek the truth as well as financial compensation, including, but not limited to, past, present and future medical expenses; pain and suffering; loss of a normal life; and loss of future earnings that a child may sustain as[gelaw.com]
  • Paarz, Esq. have presented over 65 birth injury cases and assisted many families in birth injury lawsuit settlements to lessen or eliminate the financial burden caused by birth injuries.[weisspaarz.com]
  • We present expert testimony and financial estimates related to the need for special education, medical equipment, future medical treatment, nursing care, and loss in quality of life.[mcgowanhood.com]
  • All four elements must be present in order for the plaintiff to win. [20] References [ edit ] Laroia, Nirupama (2 February 2015). "Birth Trauma". MedScape. WebMD LLC. Retrieved 13 December 2017. "Birth Defects". Kids Health. Nemours.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Complications frequently arise and present real dangers to both mother and baby. The reality is that birth injuries can and do happen during pregnancy, labor and delivery on a regular basis.[birthinjuryhelpcenter.org]
  • The clinical presentation depends on the volume of blood loss and can include pallor, bluish discoloration of the abdomen, distension of the abdomen, and shock. Treatment is supportive with volume resuscitation and surgical intervention if needed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Intra-abdominal bleeding should be considered for every infant who presents with shock, pallor, unexplained anemia, and abdominal distension. Overlying abdominal skin may have a bluish discoloration.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Movement Disorder
  • About Cerebral Palsy Cerebral brain, Palsy lack of muscle control Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of a group of permanent movement disorders and are cause by the brain’s inability to control the muscles.[cerebralpalsysymptoms.com]
  • Babies with late-stage kernicterus may suffer permanent hearing loss, mental issues, and movement disorders. Spinal Cord Injuries Injuries to the spinal cord are very dangerous.[childbirthinjuries.com]
Small Head
  • For example, the infant may eventually develop an unusually small head circumference, a condition known as microcephaly, or may have difficulty focusing its eyes or develop other ophthalmologic complications.[medicalneg.com]
Spontaneous Rupture of Membranes
  • After being admitted, there is a spontaneous rupture of membranes, and the fetal monitor showed decelerations. A vacuum is used to assist in the delivery. After the baby was delivered, there was a delay in calling the NICU team.[millerandzois.com]
Hearing Impairment
  • Cerebral palsy can lead to additional health issues such as vision and hearing impairments, learning disabilities, and speech problems.[ml-law.net]
  • Conditions that cut off oxygen to the infant’s brain, which can result in brain damage, cerebral palsy, hearing impairment, breathing problems and death Bone fractures caused by improper use of equipment such as forceps and vacuums.[rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com]
  • There may also be an array of cognitive problems, ranging from learning disabilities, behavioral disorders, vision or hearing impairments, or difficulty with speech and the ability to communicate.[willenslaw.com]
  • […] injury Delay or failure to perform a cesarean section Brain damage/mental retardation Failure to diagnose and treat preeclampsia Caput succedaneum Injuries from improperly performed episiotomy Cephalohematoma Impaired sexual function Cerebral palsy Incontinence[medicalmalpractice-la.com]
  • […] following complications : Pregnancy malpractice/maternal birth injuries – mismanagement of the pregnancy Complications caused by delivery using forceps Abnormal bleeding caused by medical negligence Injury to bowel or bladder Pelvic injuries during birth Incontinence[traceysolicitors.ie]
  • Those with Cerebral Palsy may also have: Difficulty with vision, hearing, and speech Intellectual and learning disabilities Seizures Abnormal touch or pain perceptions Oral diseases Mental health/psychiatric conditions Urinary incontinence Autism spectrum[dolmanlaw.com]
  • Medications used in treating CP include muscle relaxants to reduce stiffness and spasms, anticonvulsants to treat seizures, and anticholinergics for muscle tremors and spasms.[cerebralpalsyguidance.com]
  • Other symptoms include stiff muscles, weak muscles, tremors, and may be as severe as to cause seizures. Children may also have poor coordination, difficulty speaking and poor cognition (thinking and reasoning).[cerebralpalsysymptoms.com]
  • […] and symptoms: Lack of muscle coordination when performing voluntary movements (ataxia) Stiff muscles and exaggerated reflexes (spasticity) Stiff muscles with normal reflexes (rigidity) Slow, writhing movements (athetosis) Inconsistency in muscle tone Tremors[hughesandcoleman.com]
  • People suffering from CP may also suffer from tremors, seizures, and other impairments. Cerebral Palsy should not be confused with a disease.[dolmanlaw.com]
  • Symptoms can range from slight tremors and poor coordination to complete paralysis. Cerebral Palsy is a non-progressive condition, meaning the brain damage caused at the time of birth will not cause further degeneration.[braininjurylaw.ca]
  • When a birth injury is suffered because of the neglect of a doctor or other health care provider, the Indianapolis birth injury lawyers of Garau Germano, P.C. are prepared to help.[indianapolis-medical-malpractice-lawyer.com]
  • For instance, one member of the medical team might neglect to inform the physicians about signs of infant distress, which delays treatment. Regardless of the specific circumstance, this often traces back to medical negligence.[cerebralpalsygroup.com]
  • Asphyxiation that occurs during delivery may be the result of medical malpractice or neglect if the physicians did not act appropriately or with a reasonable amount of care.[dolmanlaw.com]
Poor Coordination
  • Children may also have poor coordination, difficulty speaking and poor cognition (thinking and reasoning). Though the symptoms may be apparent in early infancy, they may continue to become more obvious and pronounced as the child ages.[cerebralpalsysymptoms.com]
  • Symptoms can range from slight tremors and poor coordination to complete paralysis. Cerebral Palsy is a non-progressive condition, meaning the brain damage caused at the time of birth will not cause further degeneration.[braininjurylaw.ca]
Spastic Quadriplegia
  • Quadriplegia 9.75M – non-reassuring fetal heart rate pattern, vaginal delivery, Spastic Quadriplegia 9.35M – delay calling C-Section for fetal distress, emergency C-Section, Spastic Quadriplegia 9.2M – providers were monitoring mom but not baby, fetal[gelaw.com]
  • quadriplegia. 23 Million in a birth injury case involving failure to treat high blood pressure caused by brain damage to the mother. 21.175 Million in a birth injury case where the doctors failed to detect abnormal blood pressure and delayed cesarean[prslaw.com]
Spastic Paralysis
  • Common preventable birth injuries include: Brain injury (including Cerebral Palsy ) Brachial plexus injuries (including Erb’s Palsy ) Untreated jaundice can cause Kernicterus Spasticity Paralysis Meconium aspiration Excessive bleeding Infections Bleeding[weisspaarz.com]


  • Utility of ultrasound in noninvasive preoperative workup of neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Pediatr Radiol. 2016 May ; 46(5): 695 – 703. PMID: 26718200. . Google Scholar 43) Basha, A, Amarin, Z, Abu-Hassan, F. Birth-associated long-bone fractures.[journals.sagepub.com]
  • Workup Workup consists of radiographic studies of the shoulder and upper arm to rule out bony injury. The chest should be examined to rule out associated phrenic nerve injury.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • A workup for bleeding disorders may be considered in selected cases if the degree of bleeding is out of proportion to the trauma at birth.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • In many cases, spinal cord injuries are temporary, and with treatment and rehabilitation a child can make a full recovery. A spinal cord injury lawyer may be able to help families alleviate the stress of expensive treatments.[braininjurylaw.ca]
  • There is often a big difference between the ideal, most advanced treatment and the treatment and services covered by private medical insurance and programs like Medicaid.[weisspaarz.com]
  • What about long term medical treatment and rehabilitation? 1 The additional medical treatment, rehabilitation or long-term care that is – or may – be needed for mother or baby in a birth injury compensation claim is called Special Damages.[national-accident-helpline.co.uk]
  • These treatments could drain your family's finances unless you are able to obtain compensation from the faulty party.[cavanaghlawgroup.com]
  • Additional injuries, such as broken bones, may not be classified as "serious," but require treatment that is difficult and expensive.[foleylawfirm.com]


  • What will life with a child with a birth injury look like, and what is the prognosis of certain birth injuries? It’s natural for these and many more questions to come to mind.[birthinjuryguide.org]
  • Visitors to this site will find information and resources about the different types birth injuries and their potential causes, as well current information on treatment, prognosis and financial assistance.[birthinjuryhelpcenter.org]
  • […] guidelines for determining prognosis are available.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • The prognosis of spinal cord injuries depends on the level of injury. Lesions below T4 have a comparatively better prognosis. Superficial soft tissue injuries generally heal well without any residual sequelae.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These cases typically have a good prognosis, with infants recovering without sequelae [ 25 ].[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Risk factors asphyxia breech presentation shoulder dystocia instrument delivery macrosomia obstructed labor Etiology There are a wide range of conditions related to birth trauma, ranging from superficial and minor injuries through to fatal injuries.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Etiology The birth process is a blend of compression, contractions, torques, and traction.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • The exact etiology is uncertain but due to the lowest incidence with cesarean deliveries, it has been suggested that retinal hemorrhages are caused by pressure exerted on the fetal head during passage through the birth canal [ 1 ].[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • The Epidemiology of Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy in the United States: Declining Incidence and Evolving Risk Factors. J Pediatr Orthop. 2019 Feb; 39 (2):e134-e140. [ PubMed : 29016426 ][ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The epidemiology of neonatal brachial plexus palsy in the United States. Foad SL, Mehlman CT, Ying J. J Bone Joint Surg. 2008; 90 :1258–1264. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 9.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiologic aspects of shoulder dystocia-related neurological birth injuries. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2014 Sep 11. [Medline]. [Guideline] Narakas AO. The Paralysed Hand. Edinburough: Churchill Livingstone; 1987.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • To understand the range of birth injuries, one must know the risk factors, clinical presentations, pathology and pathophysiology, and postmortem autopsy findings.[journals.sagepub.com]
  • Retrieved from Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology. (2018, July 26). Retrieved from Laptook, A. R., Shankaran, S., Tyson, J. E., Munoz, B., Bell, E. F., Goldberg, R. N., … & Das, A. (2017).[abclawcenters.com]
  • Pathophysiology of neonatal subconjunctival hemorrhage. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1992 Mar; 31 (3):149-52. [ PubMed : 1547586 ] 16. Holden R, Morsman DG, Davidek GM, O'Connor GM, Coles EC, Dawson AJ.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • If a newborn’s death is deemed preventable, it could be termed a wrongful death. Preventable Birth Injuries The death of an infant is always a tragedy, if it could have been prevented with better medical care, the loss is even more devastating.[cerebralpalsyguidance.com]
  • No parent can know with certainty whether a birth injury was preventable without expert guidance.[bakerandgilchrist.com]
  • Birth injuries are injuries the baby sustains from physical trauma during the birthing process — which means they’re almost always preventable.[psblaw.com]
  • While medical negligence is not common, it can kill your baby or prevent them from living a normal life.[childbirthinjuries.com]

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