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BK Virus


Presentation

  • We present a review of the clinically oriented literature about BK virus, a relative of JC virus, which is the etiologic agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present two cases of BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy who were submitted to contrasting strategies of clinical follow-up to BK polyomavirus reactivation, but progressed to a similar final outcome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • HC may present early and be more prolonged in patients with BK viruria. Patients with HC after cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide with negative bacterial cultures should be studied for BKV.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The two can be difficult to distinguish on allograft biopsy and can be present simultaneously.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a case of an unexpected cause of acute kidney injury in a renal transplant recipient following IVIG infusion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chronic Infection
  • Reactivation of BK virus in renal allografts causes a destructive chronic infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chronic Diarrhea
  • Herein we describe the first case of BKV positive invasive urothelial carcinoma within the renal allograft, presenting with chronic diarrhea and weight loss 5 years following resolution of BK viremia/nephropathy (BKVN).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • The workup supported the clear diagnosis of BK virus nephropathy with tubulointerstitial changes, and the patient responded favorably to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BK virus workup was performed for kidney recipients in our center under conditions of hematuria or acute deterioration of graft function.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Immunoglobulin A Decreased
  • Intravenous infusion of pooled immunoglobulins could decrease BK viral load in the plasma, as demonstrated in a small study of kidney transplant recipients. Randomized controlled studies are needed to determine efficacy.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
Creatinine Decreased
  • Repeat biopsy showed overt BK viral nephropathy, and BKV and creatinine decreased only after reduction in immunosuppression and initiation of leflunomide.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Human Papillomavirus
  • KEYWORDS: BK virus (BKV); Epstein–Barr virus (EBV); co-infection; human papillomavirus (HPV); laryngeal cancer; oral cancer; oropharyngeal cancer; squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Similar to the human papillomavirus, the BK virus was detected in clinical specimens. It seems that HPV and BKV infections can contribute to the neoplastic process, which requires detailed studies on a larger group of patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • High prevalence of BK poliyomavirus sequences in Human papillomavirus-16-positive precancerous cervical lesions. J Med Virol. 2011; 83: 1770–1776. 36. Fraase K., Hart J., Wu H., Pang X., Ma L., Grant F. et al.[jpccr.eu]
  • Gorczynska et al. reported a study of 26 paediatric patients with HC due to human polyomavirus (human papillomavirus; 21 patients with BKV, one patient with JC virus, and four patients with adenovirus) who were given standard cidofovir dosing until resolution[pubs.sciepub.com]
  • Human polyomavirus and human papillomavirus prevalence and viral load in non-malignant tonsillar tissue and tonsillar carcinoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Treponema Pallidum
  • The donors fulfilled all criteria required for blood donation, including serologic and PCR negativity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), HIV, and Treponema pallidum Polyomavirus molecular diagnostic assays BKV and JCV loads were quantified[doi.org]
White Matter Lesions
  • Brain magnetic resonance image revealed a new white matter lesion in the splenium. On immunohistochemistry, there was SV40-positive staining in gastric and heart biopsy specimens.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • The uses of current treatment options are still questionable. Our audit confirms that reducing immunosuppression appears to be the criterian standard for the treatment of BK nephropathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Currently, there is no proven effective treatment except for the reduction of immunosuppression. In this review, we discuss diagnostic challenges and current treatment options for BK in kidney transplant recipients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • At seven months post-tx, with FDA approval under an eIND, the patient was started on a 36-wk course of treatment with the investigational drug. The patient is now more than 24 months after stopping treatment with CMX.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A critical review of the literature and the treatment modalities for post-HCT PVAN are provided.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A deceased donor renal transplant was performed and good initial allograft function was achieved following treatment with prednisolone, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Because of its rapid progression and poor prognosis, it is difficult to make an antemortem diagnosis of BKV pneumonia. A treatment strategy for BKV pneumonia also needs to be formulated.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Extensive literature review carried out by the pharmacist to look into the prevalence, prognosis and treatment of BK nephropathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • None of the histopathologic features studied had any effect on renal prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for developing BK nephropathy were use of antithymocyte globulin, lower weight, and not using acyclovir as early prophylaxis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Each transplant requires multiple pre- and post-transplant screenings to monitor patient health, prognosis and risk of organ graft rejection.[elitechgroup.com]
  • What should you tell the family about the patient's prognosis? Up to 20-30% of patients with BK virus associated nephropathy can lose the transplanted kidney graft.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]

Etiology

  • We present a review of the clinically oriented literature about BK virus, a relative of JC virus, which is the etiologic agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This is why it is so important to become familiar with as many etiological factors as possible. The development of many human neoplasms is often initiated by exposure to infectious agents - such as bacterial or viral infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract BK virus (BKV) causes persistent and asymptomatic infections in most humans and is the etiologic agent of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) and other pathologies.[aran.library.nuigalway.ie]
  • Transplant. 12 , 1199 (2012), Abstract ; Full Text Evaluation of human polyomavirus BK as a potential cause of villitis of unknown etiology and spontaneous abortion : M.M. Cajaiba, et al.; J. Med.[enzolifesciences.com]
  • BK virus as a cofactor in the etiology of prostate cancer in its early stages. J Virol. 2008;82:2705–14. PubMed PubMed Central View Article Google Scholar Theile M, Grabowski G. Mutagenic activity of BKV and JCV in human and other mammalian cells.[translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com]

Epidemiology

  • This study aimed to evaluate epidemiology of BKVAN and its situation in Thailand. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted among adult kidney transplant recipients at Ramathibodi Hospital from October 2011 to September 2016.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These data indicate significant differences between BKV and JCV with respect to virus-host interaction and epidemiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, there are limited studies on prevalence and molecular epidemiology of BKV in Iran. We therefore aimed to evaluate the prevalence and subtypes of BKV in Iranian HIV patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We evaluated the incidence of persistent kidney function decline, which was defined as a confirmed reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate of at least 25% from baseline using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology equation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although discovered over thirty years ago, many aspects of the epidemiology of BK Virus in the general population, such as the source of infectious virus and the mode of transmission, are still unknown.[elitechgroup.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Now that BK virus can be identified by use of specific and sensitive techniques, careful evaluation of the clinical and pathologic presentations of patients with BK virus will allow us to form a clearer picture of viral-associated pathophysiology in many[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful Rapid detection of BK virus DNA Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test Polyomaviruses[mayomedicallaboratories.com]
  • […] of case reports describing BKV-associated urothelial carcinomas and the growing body of data to support this possible viral oncogenic role, there remains a need for conclusive evidence of BKV involvement in carcinogenesis, and an elucidation of the pathophysiologic[gotoper.com]

Prevention

  • RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work has turned toward preventive therapies analogous to those used for other infections like cytomegalovirus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: In vitro and retrospective studies of kidney-transplant patients have shown that quinolones can efficiently prevent BK virus (BKV) replication.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Our results pave the way for the treatment or prevention of PVAN with adoptive immunotherapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Careful administration of chemotherapy and anti-viral therapy prevented further damage. This diagnosis should be considered in children who experience renal dysfunction during cancer treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • After reduction of immunosuppression and treatment with IVIG, leflunomide, ciprofloxacin, and cidofovir, clearance of BK virus from blood was achieved, and further progression or renal failure was prevented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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