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Bladder Distention

Distended Bladder


Presentation

  • A confused patient presented with hypovolemic shock and signs of arterial and venous obstruction of the left lower extremity; the correct diagnosis of urinary retention was made after phlebography.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Leg Edema
  • On the other hand, a variety of pelvic conditions, such as inflammation, benign and malignant tumors and the gravid and fibroid uterus, 1 2 3 4 have been cited as responsible for iliac-vein obstruction and, in many cases, leg edema.[nejm.org]
Diplopia
  • When it affects the upper motor neuron controlling the bladder, it causes optic neuritis, paresthesia, diplopia, nystagmus, muscle weakness, and dizziness along with bladder distention.[buzzle.com]
Limb Weakness
  • In neurological causes there would be other neurological symptoms like tingling and pin and needle sensation in limbs, weakness of muscles, alteration in tone and power of the muscles.[tandurust.com]
Nystagmus
  • When it affects the upper motor neuron controlling the bladder, it causes optic neuritis, paresthesia, diplopia, nystagmus, muscle weakness, and dizziness along with bladder distention.[buzzle.com]

Workup

  • This consideration may require additional diagnostic workup and/or referral to appropriate specialists. Treatment Levels for IC/BPS.[auanet.org]
Multiple Ulcerations
  • For example, patient number 3 in Table 1 has multiple ulcers and a bladder capacity of only 200 cc at 80 cm H 2 O under general anesthesia, but with EMDA we were able to achieve a distention capacity of 205 cc at only 60 cm H 2 O with the patient fully[bmcurol.biomedcentral.com]
Ischemic Changes
  • Figure 1 Cinearteriogram frames and coronary diameter measurements in a 65-year-old man with ECG ischemic changes (from group 1 without pretreatment with an alpha 1 blocker).[onlinejacc.org]

Treatment

  • Only one out of four patients who had this treatment twice showed improvement of her symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Bladder Distention as Treatment Even though bladder distention is a condition that can occur as a result of disease or some other factor, it also is used by doctors as a treatment.[healthyliving.azcentral.com]
  • Furthermore, if distended bladder is caused by an infection, primary treatment will revolve around treating the infection.[belmarrahealth.com]
  • TENS is a relatively inexpensive interstitial cystitis treatment and allows people to take an active part in the treatment process. Within some guidelines, the patient decides when, how long, and at what intensity TENS will be used.[bladder.emedtv.com]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Survival in MMIHS seems to have improved, thanks to more specialized care, innovations in parenteral nutrition, and introduction of multivisceral transplantation.[orpha.net]
  • Acute Urinary Retention Prognosis Depending on the underlying cause, as many as 70 percent of acute urinary retention cases recur within a week after initial treatment. BPH causes most recurrences. Publication Review By: Stanley J.[healthcommunities.com]
  • Prognosis Prognosis is dependent on the cause, location, degree and duration of obstruction. Bad prognostic factors are longer duration and worse severity of obstruction, together with concomitant infection.[patient.info]
  • […] broad clinical diagnosis, on the basis of symptoms and exclusion of other diseases, and then stratify patients by urodynamic, cystoscopic, histological, and other tests on the basis of the significance of these findings for results of treatment and prognosis[tau.amegroups.com]
  • The prognosis also depends on the cause of obstruction. For example, an untreated infection is more likely to cause kidney damage than a kidney stone. Treatment usually aims to relieve the cause of obstruction.[merckmanuals.com]

Etiology

  • Indications for the procedure included severe urgency, frequency, and incontinence from a variety of etiologies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiology Etiology of MMIHS is unknown but various hypotheses have been proposed to describe the pathogenesis including genetic, neurogenic, myogenic and hormonal origin. The 15q11.2 region might be associated with MMIHS.[orpha.net]
  • "Etiology, pathophysiology and biomarkers of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome". Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 295 (6): 1341–1359. doi : 10.1007/s00404-017-4364-2. ISSN 1432-0711. PMID 28391486.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Further reading Interstitial Cystitis Association (US) Interstitial Cystitis Network (US) International Painful Bladder Foundation References Erickson, DR Interstitial cystitis: Update on etiologies and therapeutic options Journal of Women's Health 1999[womhealth.org.au]

Epidemiology

  • The book provides a succinct update on epidemiology and briefly covers lower urinary tract anatomy and physiology.[books.google.com]
  • Summary Epidemiology MMIHS prevalence is unknown but the disease has been reported in 230 patients, of which 71% are females. Clinical description Enlarged and nonobstructed bladder is the first manifestation of MMIHS and can be detected prenatally.[orpha.net]
  • But the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology Study (RICE) — the largest to date on IC — revealed that the condition affects 3 to 8 million women. ( 1 ) Interstitial cystitis does not discriminate based on age or gender.[everydayhealth.com]
  • In recent years, the scientific community has achieved a much deeper understanding of the epidemiology of interstitial cystitis.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Facts and Epidemiology Associated conditions of AD: SCI: The most common etiology, but only lesions above T6-8 Leaving sufficient sympathetic neurons below the lesion, out of neural contact with brain stem regulating centers for the syndrome to occur[ngbladder.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • This is followed by a discussion on the pathophysiology of various types of dysfunctions and a clinical section that focuses on evaluation and treatment.[books.google.com]
  • Pathophysiology The pathophysiology of postpartum urinary retention is not clearly understood but various mechanisms have been suggested.[ogpnews.com]
  • The pathophysiologic characteristics are complex, including transient hypervolemia from the absorption of electrolyte-free irrigation fluid, dilutional hypoalbuminemia, toxicity from glycine and impaired renal function (39).[onlinejacc.org]
  • The most prominent component of AD: dramatic development of hypertension Pathophysiologic mechanism Normal reflex mechanism: Normal sympathetic output from the spinal cord is modulated (inhibited) by input from the higher centers (medulla) Pathological[ngbladder.org]
  • It is clear, however, that there is a limited understanding of IC/BPS pathophysiology and that most treatments are targeted at symptom control.[auanet.org]

Prevention

  • A person with bladder incontinence may have to wear diapers or pads to prevent the leakage from being noticeable. Another condition occurs when a person cannot empty their bladder or even urinate. This condition is known as distended bladder.[belmarrahealth.com]
  • Complications of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP): incidence, management, and prevention. Eur Urol. 2006; 50:969–979. PMID: 16469429. [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ] 2.[e-sciencecentral.org]
  • I am coping a bit better at preventing leakage in general now (doubling up on the panties).[healthunlocked.com]
  • Prophylaxis: Before procedures: Electroejaculation: oral prophylaxis with 20 mg of nifedipine [Steinberger 1990] careful monitoring during procedure Endoscopic procedure in susceptible patients: spinal or general anesthesia Preventing measures: Surgical[ngbladder.org]

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