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Bladder Exstrophy



  • We present the first reported case demonstrating an association of mucocolpos and bladder exstrophy. A term baby girl presented with bladder exstrophy and underwent a successful primary bladder closure and ureteral reimplantation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • During hospitalization the patient had a positive urinary culture with Candida lusitaniae, enterococcus and septicemia with Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report the first case of metastatic high grade urothelial carcinoma with squamous and sarcomatoid differentiation arising from undiagnosed, closed bladder exstrophy in a female at advanced age with associated bilateral deep vein thrombosis and clot[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Distraction was started on day 5 postoperatively. The distraction rate was 1 mm. daily and immobilization time was 28 days. The distraction progress was monitored by sonography. The device was removed 6 weeks postoperatively.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Psychomotor Retardation
  • The boy presented with the classic features of chromosome 1q43q44 deletion syndrome including growth and psychomotor retardation, microcephaly, distinct facial features and various midline defects as agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac and urogenital[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Six (50%) females affirmed dyspareunia whereas only two (8%) males reported pain during erection. Eight (67%) females specified having orgasms. Eighteen (72%) males were able to ejaculate.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Successful intercourse has been reported in all patients in one study and dyspareunia was reported in a minority [82].[pediatricurologybook.com]
  • CONCLUSION: Ureterosigmoidostomy pouch is a good alternative for selected neglected cases in improving the quality of life in the developing world.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • In neonates, exstrophy of bladder is diagnosed on clinical examination; workup includes baseline RFT before complex reconstruction of the urinary tract. Renal USG is done to rule out renal agenesis, hydronephrosis and ectopic kidney.[ijri.org]


  • Bladder exstrophy is a severe congenital defect that requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • With treatment, your child should be able to enjoy an active childhood. Children with bladder exstrophy may need extra treatment with medication or surgery in order to have control over their bladders (urinary continence).[web.archive.org]
  • Treatment is similar. In males treatments have been: In the modern staged repair of exstrophy (MSRE) the initial step is closure of the abdominal wall, often requiring a pelvic osteotomy.[en.wikipedia.org]


  • It seems easier to repair and has a better prognosis than classic bladder exstrophy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • We describe the complications and discuss the possible etiologies of genital injuries we have seen following this operation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This severe sporadic birth defect is thought to have multifactorial etiology with evidence of genetic factors.[myhs.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu]


  • Author information 1 Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany; Department of Genomics, Life & Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany. 2 Institute of Medical Biometry, Informatics, and Epidemiology, University of Bonn, Bonn[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Summary Epidemiology The prevalence at birth for the EEC is reported at 1/10,000.[orpha.net]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • Epispadias is a variant that displays normal bladder formation but incomplete urethral tubularization from the bladder neck down. [1] Pathophysiology The true cause of bladder exstrophy has not been elucidated.[emedicine.medscape.com]


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