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Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever


Presentation

  • Hepatic necrosis with the presence of acidophilic hyaline bodies, necrotizing enteritis, epithelial necrosis and adrenal cortical necrosis were present in all monkeys.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Collection includes both citations and many full-text, downloadable documents from mid-1900s to present. AULIMP - Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals.[dtic.mil]
  • ., (1995), pp.. " Chemical and Biological Weapons: Possession and Programs Past and Present ", James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Middlebury College, April 9, 2002, accessed November 14, 2008.[thefullwiki.org]
  • The secondary structure is stabilized by four disulfide bonds which are present around the plane of the lens (Fig. 3C ).[doi.org]
Fever
  • To the Editor: Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF) was first described in 1959 during outbreaks affecting isolated human communities in eastern Bolivia.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Ordog Fever, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease originating in Bolivia after infection by Machupo mammarenavirus.BHF was first identified in 1963 as an ambisense RNA virus[en.wikipedia.org]
  • fever. ( 5301560 ) Johnson K.M....Valverde L. 1967 24 Bolivian hemorrhagic fever.[malacards.org]
Fatigue
  • The infection has_symptom fever, has_symptom headache, has_symptom fatigue, has_symptom myalgia, has_symptom arthralgia, has_symptom bleeding from the oral and nasal mucosa, and has_symptom bleeding from the bronchopulmonary, gastrointestinal and genitourinary[amp.pharm.mssm.edu]
  • Symptoms: Preliminary symptoms of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever caused by the Machupo virus include fever, headache, fatigue, myalgia, and arthralgia.[stanford.edu]
  • Following an incubation period of 1-2 weeks, patients infected with Machupo virus may develop an influenza-like illness with fever, malaise, and fatigue followed by the onset of headache, dizziness, myalgias, and severe lower back pain.[cdc.gov]
  • Early clinical manifestations in humans are characterized by nonspecific signs and symptoms including fever, headache, fatigue, myalgia, and arthralgia.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
High Fever
  • Bolivians referred to the mysterious disease as “Black Typhus” alluding to the hemorrhaging, high fever, pain, and rapid death caused by the illness.[stanford.edu]
  • The illness was characterized by high fever, headache, and bleeding from the nose, ears, and mouth, accompanied by jaundice, severe abdominal and thoracic pain as well as acute neurological manifestations.[johnhawks.net]
Fever of Unknown Origin
  • […] of unknown origin [FUO] Fever with chills Fever with rigors Hyperpyrexia NOS Persistent fever Pyrexia NOS hemorrhagic (arthropod-borne) A94 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code A94 Unspecified arthropod-borne viral fever 2016 2017 2018 2019 Billable/Specific Code[icd10data.com]
Generalized Lymphadenopathy
  • Kyasanur Forest disease – Sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, severe prostration, arthralgia, generalized lymphadenopathy, myalgia, and facial flushing, followed in 72 hours by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and hemorrhage.[visualdx.com]
Bleeding Gums
  • Some initial symptoms caused by infection of the virus include fever, mild hypertension, headache, bleeding gums, and fatigue.[microbewiki.kenyon.edu]
  • Initial symptoms may include conjunctival injection, mild hypertension, flushing, bleeding gums and cavities, headache, arthralgia, and petechial haemorrhages.[phac-aspc.gc.ca]
  • Hemorrhagic and neurologic symptoms, including petechiae and bleeding gums, tremors, and lethargy are common.[journals.plos.org]
Hypotension
  • Hypotension may also have been due to decreased plasma protein synthesis. Copyright 1978 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Article metrics loading...[ajtmh.org]
  • As the disease progresses, hypotension, dehydration, bradycardia, pulmonary edema, and internal hemorrhage may occur. The mortality rate may reach 30%; pulmonary edema is the most common cause of death. There is no specific therapy.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • From July 4 through August 12, 1994, seven family members (aged 10 months-50 years) developed an illness characterized by fever, hypotension, subconjunctival and gingival bleeding, epistaxis, petechiae, tremor, and dysarthria.[cdc.gov]
  • Early signs of infection include fever, hypotension, relative bradycardia, tachypnea, conjunctivitis, and pharyngitis. Some patients may have an accompanying rash.[visualdx.com]
Petechiae
  • When first seen by the attending physicians, he had fever, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, petechias, tremors, gingivorrhagia, and dehydration, consistent with symptoms of BHF.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • Petechiae (blood spots) on the upper body and bleeding from the nose and gums are observed when the disease progresses to the hemorrhagic phase, usually within seven days of onset.[en.wikipedia.org]
Flushing
  • Flaviviridae Yellow fever – Facial flushing, conjunctival redness, and prominent low back pain in conjunction with the sudden onset of a flu-like illness.[visualdx.com]
  • The disease has typical ongoing set of symptoms, involving:fever, malaise, headache and body pain, blood spots, bleeding from the nose and gums( very similar to Ebola and Marburg too) and overall weakness,loss of appetite and vomiting, flushed face and[sarahmaxresearch.wordpress.com]
  • Initial symptoms may include conjunctival injection, mild hypertension, flushing, bleeding gums and cavities, headache, arthralgia, and petechial haemorrhages.[phac-aspc.gc.ca]
Skin Lesion
  • Pruritic skin lesions suggestive of S. scabiei mite infestation developed in 4 humans who had direct contact with affected farm animals but not foxes.[dx.doi.org]
Epistaxis
  • In the later stages of this illness, patients may develop hemorrhagic manifestations including subconjunctival hemorrhage, epistaxis, hematemesis, melena, and hematuria, as well as neurological signs including tremor, seizures, and coma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • From July 4 through August 12, 1994, seven family members (aged 10 months-50 years) developed an illness characterized by fever, hypotension, subconjunctival and gingival bleeding, epistaxis, petechiae, tremor, and dysarthria.[cdc.gov]
  • Advanced symptoms include mucous membrane haemorrhage, epistaxis, melena, and neurological damage such as tremors, seizures, loss of muscle control, and coma. Symptoms usually arise after a one week incubation period and generally last for one week.[microbewiki.kenyon.edu]
  • Symptoms can further develop into shock and generalized mucous membrane haemorrhage, epistaxis, haematemesis, melena, haematuria, accompanied by neurological damage such as tremor, seizures, and coma ( 4 ).[phac-aspc.gc.ca]
Headache
  • Initial symptoms include headache, fever, arthralgia, and myalgia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The infection has_symptom fever, has_symptom headache, has_symptom fatigue, has_symptom myalgia, has_symptom arthralgia, has_symptom bleeding from the oral and nasal mucosa, and has_symptom bleeding from the bronchopulmonary, gastrointestinal and genitourinary[amp.pharm.mssm.edu]
  • After an incubation period of 1 to 2 weeks, the patient experiences chills, fever, headache, muscle ache, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • The infection has a slow onset with fever, malaise, headache and myalgia, very similar to Malaria symptoms.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Symptoms The infection has a slow onset with fever, malaise, headache and muscular pains.[thefullwiki.org]
Tremor
  • In the later stages of this illness, patients may develop hemorrhagic manifestations including subconjunctival hemorrhage, epistaxis, hematemesis, melena, and hematuria, as well as neurological signs including tremor, seizures, and coma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • When first seen by the attending physicians, he had fever, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, petechias, tremors, gingivorrhagia, and dehydration, consistent with symptoms of BHF.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
Dysarthria
  • From July 4 through August 12, 1994, seven family members (aged 10 months-50 years) developed an illness characterized by fever, hypotension, subconjunctival and gingival bleeding, epistaxis, petechiae, tremor, and dysarthria.[cdc.gov]
Meningism
  • Gross lesions included skin rash, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, meningeal edema, hydropericardium and enlarged friable livers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Complement Fixing Antibody
  • A report of four cases. ( 4159195 ) Stinebaugh B.J....de Alba E. 1966 25 Detection of complement-fixing antibody after Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, employing Machupo, JunA-n and Tacaribe virus antigens. ( 5840640 ) Mackenzie R.B....Johnson K.M. 1965[malacards.org]

Treatment

  • Efficacy of immune plasma in treatment of Argentine haemorrhagic fever and association between treatment and a late neurological syndrome. Lancet. 1979 ; 2 : 1216 – 7. DOI PubMed Enria DA, Briggiler AM, Sanchez Z.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • Maiztegui JI, Fernandez NJ, de Damilano AJ Efficacy of immune plasma in treatment of Argentine haemorrhagic fever and association between treatment and a late neurological syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The current treatment for Argentine and Bolivian hemorrhagic fever is a serum administered to a patient after the disease has been diagnosed, and this treatment is quite effective.[diki.pl]

Etiology

  • The etiologic agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), Machupo virus (MACV) is reported to have a mortality rate of 25-35%.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiological agent is Machupo virus (MACV, Arenaviridae). Related posts Arenavirus ; Lassa Fever ; Viral hemorrhagic fevers The virus is similar to that which causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever, and its reservoir is also wild rodents.[histopathology-india.net]
  • […] hemorrhagic fever virus infections in suckling hamsters. ( 4745242 ) Terrell T.G....Kuehne R.W. 1973 16 Pathology of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever in the rhesus monkey. ( 4202335 ) Terrell T.G....Kastello M.D. 1973 17 Multiplication of Machupo virus, the etiological[malacards.org]
  • However, it was not until 1963 that the etiologic agent, Machupo virus, was isolated from the spleen of a patient who died from this disease ( 1 ).[wwwnc.cdc.gov]

Epidemiology

  • One patient with laboratory-confirmed Machupo virus infection who received ribavirin recovered without sequelae, as did a second patient with suspected BHF whose epidemiological and clinical features were similar to those of the first patient.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cite this Apa Standard Harvard Vancouver BIBTEX RIS @article{375d1947b08f46fa90013a38cc06fa3f, title "Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever", abstract "The etiologic agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), Machupo virus (MACV)[utmb.influuent.utsystem.edu]
  • […] zoonotic viral diseases 1D61 Arenavirus disease H01542 Bolivian hemorrhagic fever Pathogen Machupo mammarenavirus [GN: T40006 ] Other DBs ICD-11: 1D61.1 ICD-10: A96.1 MeSH: D006478 Reference PMID: 24636947 Authors Patterson M, Grant A, Paessler S Title Epidemiology[genome.jp]
  • 1 Pathogenesis of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in Guinea Pigs. ( 26139838 ) 2015 2 Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever. ( 24636947 ) Patterson M....Paessler S. 2014 3 Reemergence of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, 2007-2008. ( 19788833[malacards.org]
  • Epidemic hemorrhagic fever in Bolivia: a preliminary report of the epidemiologic and clinical findings in a new epidemic area in South America. J Trop Med Hyg . 1964 ; 13 : 620 – 5 . Johnson KM , MacKenzie RB , Webb PA , Kuns ML .[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • A reemergence of reported BHF cases has been reported in recent years, which necessitates the further study and development of a vaccine to prevent future outbreaks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • During the BHF epidemics in the 1960s, rodent control was recognized as the primary method for the prevention of Machupo virus transmission (9) .[wwwnc.cdc.gov]

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