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Botulinum Toxin


Presentation

  • To our knowledge, this is the first case of EPT that presented with nasal clicks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Localized Pain
  • pain, infection, inflammation, tenderness, swelling, erythema, and/or bleeding or bruising. 1 Needle-related pain and/or anxiety may result in vasovagal reactions (e.g., syncope, hypotension); may require treatment. 1 Immunogenicity Highly immunogenic[drugs.com]
Resistant Hypertension
  • We present a case of resistant hypertension (RHTN) that was treated with CPB using botulinum toxin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Periodontitis
  • Esthetic periodontal considerations in orthodontic treatment—the management of excessive gingival display. J Can Dent Assoc 2003. 69: 368 – 372. [Google Scholar] 7. Landsberg, C. J. and O. Sarne.[doi.org]
Malocclusion
  • Severe high Angle Class II Division 1 malocclusion with vertical maxillary excess and gummy smile: a case report. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1999. 116: 317 – 320. [Google Scholar] 6. Foley, T. F., H. S. Sandhu, and C. Athanasopoulos.[doi.org]
Musculoskeletal Pain
  • Treatment and prevention of chronic headache and chronic musculoskeletal pain are emerging uses for botulinum toxin type A. Conclusion. Many of the conditions for which botulinum toxin type A has been explored are common and difficult to treat.[doi.org]
  • J Musculoskeletal Pain. 2001; 9:67-82. 336. Freund BJ, Schwartz M. Use of botulinum toxin in chronic whiplash-associated disorder. Clin J Pain. 2002; 18:S163-8. 337. Lowe NJ, Yamauchi PS, Lask GP et al.[drugs.com]
Joint Dislocation
  • The purpose of this report was to describe the case of a child presenting with recurring temporomandibular joint dislocation secondary to muscle hyperactivity of unknown etiology that was managed with injections of botulinum toxin type A into the inferior[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Dolores Martı́nez-Pérez and Pedro Garcı́a Ruiz-Espiga, Recurrent temporomandibular joint dislocation treated with botulinum toxin: report of 3 cases, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 10.1016/j.joms.2003.04.014, 62, 2, (244-246), (2004).[doi.org]
Flushing
  • BACKGROUND: Persistent erythema and severe rosacea flushing can cause significant physical discomfort and emotional stress to patients. Currently, no satisfactory treatments are available.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Active Not Recruiting Not Available Dysphonia 1 Not Available Active Not Recruiting Not Available Lower Limb Spasticity 1 Not Available Active Not Recruiting Not Available Urinary Bladder, Overactive 1 Not Available Active Not RecruitingTreatment Facial Flushing[drugbank.ca]
Diplopia
  • Diplopia resolved completely in 14 patients, resolved incompletely with short-term single vision in 3 cases, and persisted in 5 patients despite correction of the deviation by BTXA.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Scotoma
  • Two months after the botulinum toxin A injection, the visual acuity had almost returned to baseline, with a remaining paracentral scotoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Facial Scar
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of botulinum toxin type A on surgical facial scars.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Debraj Shome, Stuti Khare and Rinky Kapoor, An Algorithm Using Botox Injections for Facial Scar Improvement in Fitzpatrick Type IV–VI Skin, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open, 10.1097/GOX.0000000000001888, 6, 8, (e1888), (2018).[doi.org]
Low Self-Esteem
  • It is a psychosocially disabling condition leading to low self-esteem, chronic stress and depressive symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Apraxia
  • A 37-year-old female presented with severe apraxia of lid opening (ALO) affecting the right upper lid associated with Becker congenital myotonia (MC).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Abnormal Involuntary Movement
  • For all patients, the abnormal movements were evaluated using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sinus Headache
  • David Stepnick, Botulinum Toxin for Migraine Headaches, Sinus Headache, Migraine, and the Otolaryngologist, 10.1007/978-3-319-50376-9_5, (65-89), (2017).[doi.org]

Treatment

  • Abstract Botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections into facial and bulbar muscles are widely and increasingly used as medical treatments for cervical and facial dystonia, facial hemispasm, correction of facial palsy, hyperhidrosis, as well as cosmetic treatment[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • Sustained TMJ dislocation is not amenable to manual reduction alone when the etiology is muscular in nature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Several etiologic factors have been proposed in the literature; these include skeletal, gingival, and muscular factors that may occur alone or in combination.1,2 Although vertical maxillary dental and/ or skeletal excess3–5 or gingival problems from delayed[doi.org]
  • Nocturnal Bruxism 1 2RecruitingTreatment Obstructed Defecation Syndrome (ODS) 1 2RecruitingTreatment Overactive Bladder With Urinary Incontinence / Urinary Incontinence (UI) 1 2RecruitingTreatment Painful Unilateral Femorotibial Knee Osteoarthritis of Any Etiology[drugbank.ca]
  • If requested by a state health agency, CDC will deploy response teams to investigate unexplained or suspicious illnesses or unusual etiologic agents and provide on-site consultation regarding medical management and disease control.[cdc.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Effective response to a deliberate release of botulinum toxin will depend on timely clinical diagnosis, case reporting, and epidemiological investigation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ZOONOSIS : No epidemiological relationship between human and animal botulism has been established Footnote 2. VECTORS : None.[phac-aspc.gc.ca]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Background: Pharmacological management of cervical dystonia (CD) is considered to be symptomatic in effect, rather than targeting the underlying pathophysiology of the disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiology of migraine and tension-type headache. Curr Opin Neurol 1994 ; 7: 272 – 7. Google Scholar Medline 9. . Biary, N, Koller, W, Langenberg, P. Correlation between essential tremor and migraine headache.[doi.org]
  • Jia-Fong Jhang and Hann-Chorng Kuo, Botulinum Toxin A and Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction: Pathophysiology and Mechanisms of Action, Toxins, 10.3390/toxins8040120, 8, 4, (120), (2016).[dx.doi.org]

Prevention

  • We now know that peripherally delivered BoNTs are taken up in sensory afferents and transported to cleave SNARE proteins in the ganglion and TNC, prevent evoked afferent release and downstream activation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Silberstein SD, Goadsby PJ: Migraine: preventive treatment. Cephalalgia 2002, 22 :491–512. CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar 6.[doi.org]

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