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Boxer's Dementia

Punchdrunk Syndrome


Presentation

  • Each entry follows a 5 section structure that will cover (1) essential features of the disorder (2) physiological basis of the disorder (3) neuropsychological and other clinical presentation (4) assessment and diagnostic practices (5) evidence-based treatments[books.google.de]
  • Tuesday 13 May, presented at NYC MedTech -the NYC Medical Technology Forum, at Troutman Sanders LLP, Chrysler Building, New York City In a packed (agenda and attendees) two hour evening meeting, three presenters detailed the latest research on the clinical[doctordementia.com]
  • But some preliminary results have been the subject of presentations, national scientific meetings and published articles.[health.clevelandclinic.org]
  • Comprehensive medical information presented by MerckSource.com. Find resources and learn about women's health, senior's health, children's health, family health and more.[web.archive.org]
Bullet Wound
  • Other causes include Indirect forces that jolt the brain violently within the skull, such as shock waves from battlefield explosion Bullet wounds or other injuries that penetrate the skull and brain Dementia and traumatic brain injury Over the past 30[doctordementia.com]
Aspiration
  • Other Problems Problems with respiratory care including tracheostomies; feeding and nutrition including feeding tubes; swallowing problems including aspiration; bowel and bladder management; and skin breakdown are other effects of brain injury.[brainline.org]
  • Difficulty swallowing increases the risk of choking or aspirating food into the lungs, which can block breathing and cause pneumonia. Inability to perform self-care tasks.[mayoclinic.org]
Loss of Appetite
  • While we had been blessed with the endless supply of food from family and friends, I struggled with my loss of appetite. My co-workers Andrea and Tracy brought me chocolate Ensure Plus.[brainline.org]
Tachycardia
  • This in turn can create the following potential life-threatening symptoms: increased IntraCranial Pressure (ICP), tachycardia, tremors, seizures, fevers, increased blood pressure, increased Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF), and diaphoresis .[en.wikipedia.org]
Hyperhidrosis
  • This creates a striking visual effect: severe erythema (redness) and hyperhidrosis (extreme sweating) on only the left half of his forehead, face, shoulder, neck, and chest.[brainline.org]
Confusion
  • The report noted that boxers who suffer from this condition will commonly experience tremors, slowed movement, speech problems and confusion.[doctordementia.com]
  • Mild traumatic brain injury The signs and symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury may include: Physical symptoms Loss of consciousness for a few seconds to a few minutes No loss of consciousness, but a state of being dazed, confused or disoriented Headache[mayoclinic.org]
  • These signs include confusion, loss of consciousness, amnesia, and focal neurological deficits.[doi.org]
  • Grade 1: No loss of consciousness, transient confusion, and other symptoms that resolve within 15 minutes Grade 2: No loss of consciousness, transient confusion and other symptoms that require more than 15 minutes to resolve Grade 3: Loss of consciousness[receptranaturals.com]
  • A progressive degenerative disease of the brain that causes impairment of memory and dementia manifested by confusion, visual-spatial disorientation, inability to calculate, and deterioration of judgment. 2.[wordinfo.info]
Slurred Speech
  • Clinically CTE is characterised by mood and behavioural changes, memory loss, executive dysfunction, slurred speech and Parkinsonism. Furthermore, all the players with signs of CTE also had signs of Alzheimer’s disease.[thebadgeronline.com]
  • Both may have been the case with Ali, who was already showing signs of Parkinson’s—slurred speech and uncoordinated movements—before his last fight.[time.com]
  • After witnessing Norris' slurred speech at the hearing, and comparing it to tapes of intact speech from only a few years prior, the request was unanimously denied.[sherdog.com]
  • It was in September of that year – just three years into retirement from boxing – that Ali became concerned about tremors, slowness of movement, slurred speech and unexplained fatigue.[scienceofparkinsons.com]
  • speech (dysarthria) significant memory problems parkinsonism – the typical symptoms of Parkinson's disease, including tremor, slow movement and muscle stiffness difficulty eating or swallowing (dysphagia) – although this is rare Find out more about the[nhs.uk]
Dysarthria
  • , and other movement disorders. box·er's de·men·tia ( boksĕrz dĕ-menshē-ă ) Mental disorder due to cumulative damage sustained over some years in boxing, with slowed thought, memory loss, dysarthria, and other movement disorders.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • CTE includes motor changes such as tremor, dysarthria, and parkinsonism; cognitive changes such as mental slowing and memory deficits; and psychiatric changes such as explosive behavior, morbid jealousy, pathological intoxication, and paranoia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this disorder, called dysarthria, the patient can think of the appropriate language, but cannot easily speak the words because they are unable to use the muscles needed to form the words and produce the sounds.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] increasing confusion and disorientation – for example, getting lost, wandering or not knowing what time of day it is difficulty thinking – such as finding it hard to make decisions As the condition progresses, further symptoms may include: slurred speech (dysarthria[nhs.uk]
  • […] or emphasis to express emotions, attitudes or subtle differences in meaning Difficulty understanding nonverbal signals Trouble reading cues from listeners Trouble starting or stopping conversations Inability to use the muscles needed to form words (dysarthria[mayoclinic.org]
Aphasia
  • […] dementia [ dĕ-men shah ] a general loss of cognitive abilities, including impairment of memory as well as one or more of the following: aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, or disturbed planning, organizing, and abstract thinking abilities.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Some may experience aphasia, difficulty with understanding and producing spoken and written language; or they may have difficulty with the more subtle aspects of communication, such as body language and emotional, non-verbal signals.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] head without direct impact. 23 Cortical contusions are associated with localized ischemia, edema, mass effect, and poorer outcome in MTBI. 24 Signs of a contusion vary with cortical location and may include focal weakness, numbness, incoordination, aphasia[doi.org]
Hyperactivity
  • The phenomenological characteristics and clinical correlates of major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol use disorders, and post-traumatic brain injury attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have been studied in more detail.[doi.org]
  • […] this complex medical condition using a variety of interchangeable terms including: NeuroStorming Sympathetic Storms Para-sympathetic Storming Neurologic Storming Autonomic Dysfunction Syndrome Diencephalic Seizures Dysautonomia Paroxysmal Sympathetic Hyperactivity[brainline.org]

Treatment

  • […] disorders across the lifespan (pediatric, adult, and geriatric populations) Includes interventions and methods of treatment for the outcomes patients may experience[books.google.de]
  • Once DP occurs, it is similar to Alzheimer’s disease in almost every way and can be managed with proper medication and treatment options.[healthlifemedia.com]
  • Unfortunately, controlled treatment studies have been the exception in the field, and treatment decisions usually lack adequate empirical support.[doi.org]
  • When necessity demands medical treatment with any substance which, because of its nature, dosage, or application is able to boost the athlete's performance in competition in an artificial and unfair manner, this too is regarded as ¿ Doping ‎ Page 118[books.google.com]
  • Treatment for heterotopic ossification can include range of motion exercises, bracing or splinting, medications, or even surgery.[brainline.org]

Prognosis

  • Although the July study focused on active fighters, the prognosis for retirees isn’t good: A 2014 study in Alzheimer’s & Dementia tested the brains of 13 retired boxers and one MMA fighter and found serious cognitive impairments with reaction time, processing[menshealth.com]
  • Subdividing patients with a brain injury into these categories facilitates determination of appropriate medical treatment and prognosis for recovery.[doi.org]
  • Asadi-Pooya, Prognosis after late relapse following epilepsy surgery, Epilepsy Research, 78, 1, (77), (2008).[doi.org]

Etiology

  • […] scarring of brain tissue, collection of proteinaceous, senile plaques, hydrocephalus, attenuation of corpus callosum, diffuse axonal injury, neurofibrillary tangles, and damage to the cerebellum are implicated in the syndrome. [8] The condition may be etiologically[boxing.wikia.com]
  • Mittenberg WDiGiulio DVPerrin SBass AE Symptoms following mild head injury: expectation as etiology. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1992;55200- 204 Google Scholar Crossref 86.[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • Recent findings We have now a more consistent view of the epidemiology of post-traumatic brain injury psychiatric disorders both in adult and pediatric populations.[doi.org]
  • Epidemiology of brain injury in boxing. In: Jordan BD, ed. Medical Aspects of Boxing Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press 1993: 147-168 10 Davie C A, Pirtosek Z, Barker G J. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of parkinsonism related to boxing.[doi.org]
  • Sander, Anbesaw Selassie, William Theodore, Torbjörn Tomson and Samuel Wiebe, Standards for epidemiologic studies and surveillance of epilepsy, Epilepsia, 52, s7, (2-26), (2011).[doi.org]
  • Heyman A, Wilkinson WE, Stafford JA, Helms MJ, Sigmon AH, Weinberg T (1984) Alzheimer's disease: a study of epidemiological aspects. Ann Neurol 15:335–341 Google Scholar 26.[link.springer.com]
  • With the overwhelming medical, scientific and epidemiologic evidence that a career worth of head blows leads to CTE in one out of five fighters, the moral imperative for some meaningful change is inarguable. The sport is too good not to be better.[sherdog.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Summary Recent advances in the basic neuroscience of traumatic brain injury as well as in behavioral genetics, social science and neuroimaging techniques should contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the psychiatric disorders occurring[doi.org]
  • Pathophysiology Although the details remain to be elucidated, there is mounting evidence that reactive gliosis and redistribution of aquaporin 4 molecules, leading to disruption of transparenchymal CSF clearance of interstitial beta-amyloid via the glymphatic[radiopaedia.org]
  • CTE has a pathophysiological basis. It is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by accumulations of hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain—similar to that found in Alzheimer’s disease.[thedailybeast.com]
  • Gennarelli TA Mechanisms and pathophysiology of cerebral concussion. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 1986;1 ((2)) 23- 29 Google Scholar Crossref 28. Dacey RGDikmen SS Mild head injury. Cooper PRed. Head Injury 3rd ed.[doi.org]
  • The diagnosis of CTBI is dependent upon documenting a progressive neurological condition that is consistent with the clinical symptomatology of CTBI attributable to brain trauma and unexplainable by an alternative pathophysiological process.[doi.org]

Prevention

  • Avoiding aggressive physical activity and a major risk of major injuries, particular only on a consistent basis is the best way to prevent the onset of DP.[healthlifemedia.com]
  • Better prevention When fighters demonstrate a relationship between MRI findings and physical symptoms of brain decline, researchers hope to determine what factors could play a role, such as genetics, lifestyle characteristics or the amount or type of[health.clevelandclinic.org]
  • So how do you prevent yourself from CTE? Simple, avoid contact sports especially if you are not doing it for professional reasons. Concussions do hurt the brain and contrary to common belief may cause permanent structural damage to the brain.[braindiseases.wordpress.com]
  • Methods: Potential mechanisms for prevention of epileptogenesis as well as reports and systematic reviews were evaluated to determine strategies and results of attempts to reduce or prevent the development of epilepsy following TBI.[doi.org]
  • While exercise is known to prevent dementia, it is important to ensure that people can ontinue to play a sport they enjoy whilst being protected from any negative side effects.[thebadgeronline.com]

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