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Breast Feeding



  • The score differences between those who presented with poor latch and those who presented with nipple pain are not statistically significant.[pediatrics.org]
  • In addition to the present case, there are 2 well-documented case reports of cholestasis in association with transplacental and transmammary carbamazepine exposure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increases the risks of delayed lactogenesis II and early termination of any breast-feeding in Chinese women.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • No postnatal complications occurred; however, imatinib was present in the umbilical cord blood (338 ng/mL) and in the infant's peripheral blood (478 ng/mL).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract: The present review outlines the role of breastfeeding in diabetes. In the mother, breastfeeding has been suggested to reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.[doi.org]
Short Stature
Breast Engorgement
  • For more information, see the topic Breast Engorgement.[web.archive.org]
  • Sometimes the breasts engorge if the baby misses a feeding, when the baby starts to sleep through the night, or when mom starts to wean the baby.[massagetoday.com]
  • These include things like mastitis, breast engorgement, plugged milk ducts, and sore nipples.[verywell.com]
  • Barriers Many previously reported physical effects were described as barriers, including the following: problems with technique or latching on, pain, nipple leakage, breast engorgement and disfigurement, complications at birth, and delayed milk supply[doi.org]
  • engorgement, mastitis, sore and inverted nipples, and breast refusal.[doi.org]
Nipple Discharge
  • Other early symptoms may include: nipple discharge breast pain that doesn’t go away change in size, shape, or look of the breast redness or darkening of the breast itchy or sore rash on the nipple swelling or warmth of the breast Breast cancer in lactating[healthline.com]
Cognitive Developmental Delay
  • PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive developmental delay and autism/dyspraxia were primary outcomes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Therefore, insulin currently remains the optimal antidiabetic treatment during lactation.[doi.org]
  • The development of imatinib as a therapeutic agent targeting BCR-ABL has increased the treatment options for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) by significantly impacting outcomes, and imatinib is recommended by treatment guidelines as the first-line therapy[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] with the standard of care for nipple fissure treatment during breastfeeding.[doi.org]
  • This case shows that pamidronate may be considered for treatment of lactating women.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Prognosis Mortality has not been reported. Morbidity is limited to mild cosmetic changes.[emedicine.com]


  • The authors studied the relationship of breast-feeding on malocclusions in young children by means of conducting a systematic review of association (etiology).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Infectious and metabolic etiologies as well as extrahepatic biliary atresia were excluded. Carbamazepine is known to induce hepatic damage in children and adults.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Leukemia accounts for about 30% of all childhood cancer but its etiology is still mostly unknown. To conduct a meta-analysis of available scientific evidence on the association between breastfeeding and childhood leukemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Artificial sucking habits: Etiology, prevalence and effect on occlusion. Int J Oro Myol 1994 ; 20: 10 - 21. Google Scholar Medline 23. Bowden B. The effects of digital and dummy sucking on arch widths, overbite and overjet: A longitudinal study.[doi.org]
  • The etiology of childhood leukemia is an important epidemiological and public health question.[doi.org]


  • Although epidemiological studies do not show a high level of unexplained HIV infection in infants whose mothers are HIV-negative, this does not prove that shared breastfeeding is unimportant.[web.archive.org]
  • Centre for Epidemiology at the National Board of Health and Welfare, Official Statistics of Sweden. Amning och föräldrars rökvanor – Barn födda 2009. Centre for Epidemiology at the National Board of Health and Welfare, Official Statistics of Sweden.[web.archive.org]
  • Recent epidemiological and biological findings from during the past decade expand on the known benefits of breastfeeding for women and children, whether they are rich or poor.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • Although the pathophysiology is unclear, it may involve the decrease in progesterone and rise of prolactin causing mast cell degranulation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Consequently, the pathophysiology of disturbances of the gastrointestinal functions is poorly known. Recurrent vomiting is one of many functional conditions for which it is difficult to find an explanation and to treat.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pathophysiology of this clinical phenotype is poorly understood, but it is a cause of increasing interest in gluten-free diets in the general population.[dx.doi.org]
  • Understanding the pathophysiology of telogen effluvium requires knowledge of the hair growth cycle. All hair has a growth phase, termed anagen, and a resting phase, telogen.[emedicine.com]
  • Alternatively, there could be a component of the pathways that initiate and support the return of menses postpartum that are also implicated in the pathophysiology of endometriosis.[bmj.com]


  • There is also little evidence that delaying the timing of the introduction of complementary foods beyond 4 to 6 months of age prevents the occurrence of atopic disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: There is a need to improve the knowledge of specific benefits of breastfeeding in prevention of dental diseases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Article Navigation 1 Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Surveillance and Epidemiology, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Reprints or correspondence: Dr.[jid.oxfordjournals.org]
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breastfeeding has been suggested as a candidate for primary prevention of allergies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • At present, there is no approved medicine that will reduce your milk supply and prevent engorgement. What can you do if you have breast engorgement? Many women have only mild symptoms that can be treated at home.[web.archive.org]

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