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Bronchial Obstruction


Presentation

  • Despite attempts at palliative endoscopic argon coagulation, the patient expired soon after presentation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pulmonary schwannomas are exceedingly rare and can present a diagnostic challenge. We present a case of an endobronchial schwannoma presenting with bronchial obstruction and review the literature of this unusual entity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Atypical mycobacterial infection in HIV-negative children usually presents with cervical lymphadenopathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract A case is presented in which the Nd:YAG laser obviated the need for a major thoracic procedure. A 7-year-old boy presented with an 18-month history of persistent nonproductive cough, preceded by a choking spell while eating pistachio nuts.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CASE REPORT: A 36-year-old woman presented to our hospital due to an episode of massive hemoptysis 5 days prior to admission.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dyspnea
  • We observed clinical improvement in terms of reduced dyspnea or controlled haemoptysis in 93% of our patients. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Dyspnea significantly increased when the airway lumen was obstructed by more than 60% (p 0.0001), and when the P-P curve appeared loop-shaped (p 0.01).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Bronchial asthma is a chronic disease characterized by episodic bronchial obstruction and ventilatory insufficiency and is manifested clinically by wheezing respirations, dyspnea, cough, and mucoid sputum production.[annals.org]
  • Clinical Observation A 55-year-old male farm worker with a 2-year history of illness characterized by cough, dyspnea, and wheezing was treated in our hospital.[archbronconeumol.org]
  • Follow-up chest x-ray (Figure 4 ) revealed aeration of the left lower lobe with resolution of dyspnea and hemoptysis.[cardiothoracicsurgery.biomedcentral.com]
Tracheal Deviation
  • A new chest x-ray showed complete collapse of the left lung, with remarkable tracheal deviation. Computed tomography revealed a large endobronchial lesion causing occlusion of the left main bronchus and significant mediastinal shift to the left.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Excessive Tearing
  • It can create excessive tearing, conjunctivitis, uncontrolled blinking (blepharospasm) and a sensation of burning and pain at initial exposure. Pulmonary edema (ARDS) and/or diffuse airway lesions on human would be lethal after CS inhalation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Blepharospasm
  • It can create excessive tearing, conjunctivitis, uncontrolled blinking (blepharospasm) and a sensation of burning and pain at initial exposure. Pulmonary edema (ARDS) and/or diffuse airway lesions on human would be lethal after CS inhalation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Impulsivity
  • We investigated the relation between LSA and impulse oscillometry with the evaluation of peripheral airway obstruction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODS: Ninety-nine children hospitalized for bronchiolitis at the age of less than 6 months were studied with impulse oscillometry (IOS) at the mean age of 6.3 years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Handa H, Huang J, Murgu SD, Mineshita M, Kurimoto N, et al. (2014) Assessment of central airway obstruction using impulse oscillometry before and after interventional bronchoscopy. Respir Care 59: 231–240. View Article Google Scholar 15.[journals.plos.org]
Subcutaneous Emphysema of the Neck
  • Abstract A 30-week preterm infant ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome developed severe right-sided pulmonary interstitial emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and subcutaneous emphysema involving the neck.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • . • Investigations add little in the initial workup • As viral croup is the commonest cause of UAO, attempts to identify other causes is also very important to confirm the diagnosis. 16.[slideshare.net]
Atelectasis
  • The interval between the improvement of atelectasis and the development of pneumothorax varied by less than three weeks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract A case is presented of acquired obliterative mainstem bronchial obstruction with total ipsilateral lung atelectasis and contralateral lung hyperexpansion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This causes lung collapse (atelectasis), then pneumonia. As Dr. Chevalier Jackson stated, “Not all that wheezes is asthma!” Did You Know?![dontchoke.ubc.ca]
  • Chest CT showed atelectasis and mucoid impaction in segment 1 2 of the left lung and B 1 2 obstruction with calcification. Bronchofiberscopy showed the superior division bronchial obstruction and narrowing of the lingular-bronchus.[ci.nii.ac.jp]
  • They can cause wheezing, atelectasis, infections, dyspnea and sometimes hemoptysis [ 35 ]. On bronchoscopy the tumor appears solitary, smooth and well circumscribed.[omicsonline.org]
Mediastinal Shift
  • Computed tomography revealed a large endobronchial lesion causing occlusion of the left main bronchus and significant mediastinal shift to the left. Despite the collapse of the left lung, no symptoms of bronchial obstruction were evident.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Conclusion: Obstruction of the right main bronchus by a soft tissue mass resulting in airless "drowned" right lung with subsequent volume loss and mediastinal shift. Impression of multiple pulmonary metastases. Right paratracheal lymphadenopathy.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Radiographic findings may demonstrate, endobronchial lesions, atelectasis, pneumonia, bronchiectasis and in some instances even mediastinal shift. Imaging modalities are often non-specific.[omicsonline.org]
Suppression
  • Analysis of this case with the relevant literature supports the hypothesis that bronchial obstruction is an essential contributor to the development of post primary tuberculosis and that it may help explain the localized suppression of host defense mechanisms[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Staphylococcus Aureus
  • Protective brush and semiquantitative bronchoalveolar lavage cultures grew Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas spp.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pseudomonas
  • Protective brush and semiquantitative bronchoalveolar lavage cultures grew Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas spp.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • ) in the high-dose treatment group vs. the low-dose treatment group.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We suggest that sevoflurane inhalation may be a therapeutic option in the treatment of young infants with severe bronchiolitis who respond poorly to conventional therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We observed one treatment-related death (overall mortality 0.4%). CONCLUSION: Bronchoscopic laser therapy is a generally safe and effective method to regain airway patency in cases with tracheal or bronchial obstruction and to treat haemoptysis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract A primary lung abscess due to non type B Hemophilus influenzae was diagnosed in three children who failed to improve after prolonged antibiotic treatment for dense, pneumonic infiltrates.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Despite antibiotic treatment, the obstruction had not been resolved. To relieve the bronchial obstruction, bronchoscopic intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide was performed without any complications.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • However, the ultimate prognosis is of course associated with the underlying condition.[patient.info]
  • The prognosis is poor with squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea, which carries a 5-year survival of approximately 40% when resectable and 7% when unresectable.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • […] especially when being prepared for children Consume food slowly and fully chew food before swallowing, which is an effective preventative method Closely watch very young children while they play with toys and small play items (toy parts) What is the Prognosis[dovemed.com]
  • They are not associated with smoking and have a better prognosis than surface epithelial tumors [ 35 ]. Mucous gland adenomas arise from mucosal sero-mucous glands and ducts of trachea or bronchi [ 36 ].[omicsonline.org]

Etiology

  • ETIOLOGY • Passive smoking • Exposure to chemical, air pollution • Inhalation of smoke • Hereditary factors 59.[slideshare.net]
  • “Constrictive (obliterative) bronchiolitis: diagnosis, etiology, and a critical review of the literature”. Annals of Diagnostic Pathology 2 (5): 321–334. doi : 10.1016/S1092-9134(98)80026-9. PMID 9845757.[ja.wikipedia.org]
  • Etiology-specific treatment 1. Aspiration of Food or Foreign Body Use of the Heimlich maneuver in an individual who suddenly is unable to speak while eating (a so-called, “café coronary”) may relieve the obstruction. 2.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • (Etiology) An Acute Upper Airway Obstruction is most often caused by blocked or obstructed upper airway that occurs due to the presence of foreign items that may include food, small toy parts, and other small objects.[dovemed.com]
  • Partial obstruction of endotracheal tubes in children: incidence, etiology, signiicance. Crit Care Med. 1979; 7: 227-231. Xue FS1, Luo MP, Liao X, Liu JH, Zhang YM. Delayed endotracheal tube obstruction by mucus plug in a child.[austinpublishinggroup.com]

Epidemiology

  • In children, the most common causes are T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma). [ 5 ] Epidemiology Gender predilection reflects aetiology, with more males than females due to the prevalence of lung[patient.info]
  • Definition and Epidemiology One reason that acute bronchitis is such a common diagnosis in primary care practice is that physicians often lump various conditions together under the diagnosis of bronchitis.[aafp.org]
  • Epidemiology • Agent: diptheria is caused by corynebacterium diptheriae • Source of infection: secretions and discharges from an infected person • Mode of infection: contact with droplets of infected secretions • Portal of entry: respiratory tract, conjuctiva[slideshare.net]
  • “Acute epiglotitis: epidemiology, clinical presentation, management and outcome”. J Laryngol Otol. vol. 122. 2008. pp. 818-23.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Tryfon S, Dramba V, Zoglopitis F, Iakovidis D, Sakkas L, et al. (2012) Solitary papillomas of the lower airways: epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic data during a 22-year period and review of the literature.J ThoracOncol 7: 643-648.[omicsonline.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Abstract From a pathophysiologic perspective, the changes that occur in asthma are multiple, diverse, and complex.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Palliative interventions for patients with chronic upper airway obstruction include: balloon dilatation airway stenting laser therapy electrocautery and argon plasma coagulation cryotherapy nocturnal, noninvasive, positive-pressure ventilation Pathophysiology[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • […] the United States alone, the evaluation and treatment of this illness is estimated to cost 200 million to 300 million per year. 4 Even though the diagnosis of acute bronchitis is frequently made, the definition of this illness lacks clarity and its pathophysiology[aafp.org]

Prevention

  • Different techniques of reinforcing the bronchial stump to prevent this complication have been described. Pledgeted sutures have been suggested for this purpose but have the potential to erode into the bronchus years after resection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • According to previous cases, a bronchial balloon of double-lumen endotracheal tube (DLT) could prevent a dislodged tumor from traveling to the contralateral lung.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Finland. [email protected] 2 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. 3 Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. 4 Research Centre of Applied and Preventive[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention Unlike some diseases, COPD has a clear cause and a clear path of prevention. The majority of cases are directly related to cigarette smoking, and the best way to prevent COPD is to never smoke — or to stop smoking now.[mayoclinic.org]
  • There are no definitive methods to prevent Acute Upper Airway Obstruction. However, proper precautions may be taken to reduce risks.[dovemed.com]

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