Symptoms of bubonic plague usually appear suddenly within 2 to 5 days after the human is bitten by infected flea. In a plague of this kind, the lymphatic system is most affected causing development of bubo which is characterized by painful swelling of the lymph gland. The bubo generally develops in the groin region, but can also occur in the armpits and or the neck. The site of development is usually the site of insect bite. Individuals also suffer from pain before the onset of swelling. In addition, individuals with bubonic plague may also suffer from malaise, fever with chills, headache, seizures and muscle aches.
To diagnose bubonic plague, samples will be taken from the body to analyze for the presence of bacteria. Following this, the development of buboes will be carefully examined. In addition, fluid from the buboes will be drawn to test for the presence of bacteria. Blood culture test are also required which would reveal bacteria.
An effective tool for rapid diagnosis of bubonic plague has been introduced. This test is known as direct immunofluorescence testing of body fluids. Such a kind of method is helpful in analyzing even small amounts of Yersinia pestis in the sample within 15 minutes .
For early remission of the disease, antibiotics are administered within 24 hours of appearance of the preliminary signs and symptoms. Antibiotics form the preliminary basis of treatment regime, which includes gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and doxycycline. In cases where the symptoms have taken a severe form, hospitalization would be required  .
If treatment is initiated with antibiotics, then the prognosis is usually favorable. Patients survive the disease condition and gradually recover completely. However, when the treatment is delayed, then several complications can set in, which can finally lead to death. According to the National Institute of Health (NIH), about 50% individuals with bubonic plague die, due to lack of initiation of treatment in the right time. It has also been reported that the death rate can be significantly reduced by 50% when treatment is given .
Bubonic plague is caused by bacteria known as Yersinia pestis. The bacteria are spread by infected fleas that commonly reside on rodents such as mice and rats. In rare cases, the disease is spread when the individual comes in contact with an infected material used by the infected person. Individuals can also contract the disease condition, if there is a break in the skin and they come in contact with an infected animal’s blood. Scratches from infected domestic animals, such as cats or rats, can also predispose an individual to develop bubonic plague .
The past era has witnessed a high incidence of bubonic plague. It was responsible for significant cases of mortality in the 14th century. In the period of 1994 to 1999, about 49 cases of plague were reported from different states namely Arizona, California, Utah and New Mexico. It was also estimated that 50 to 90% cases of untreated bubonic plague were a cause of mortality. In spite of strict preventive measures, cases of plague still have noted in Madagascar. About 138 new cases of bubonic plague have been reported in this island  .
There are basically 2 stages involved with the pathophysiology of plague development in humans. These include cycle within fleas, and cycle within humans. Individuals usually develop bubonic plague when they are bitten by infected fleas who have fed on animals infected with the bacteria. Once the human is bitten, the bacteria gains entry through the skin and attacks the lymphatic system. Such a phenomenon promotes swelling of the lymph glands, giving rise to development of buboes in the axilla, groin and neck region .
Controlling the rodent population can help in considerable prevention of plague. Keeping the pets safe from fleas also would help in keeping the disease at bay. It is also necessary to use insect repellants to keep insects and fleas out from home. Individuals, who spend significant amount of time outdoors, are advised to use natural insect repellants such as citronella which would keep fleas and insects away.
Vaccinations against plague are available; however they are meant for the laboratory staff that is at high risk of developing the disease. According to the guidelines issued by WHO, the plague vaccine is not appropriate in case of outbreaks .
Bubonic plague is a bacterial disease caused by infected fleas that reside on rodents. It is a severe form of bacterial infection that has life threatening consequences. In cases of failure to initiate prompt treatment, bubonic plague can cause mortality in about 2/3rd of the individuals infected with the disease.
Previously, bubonic plague was also referred to as plague, but the former is specifically caused due to an infection that enters the skin and passes through the lymphatics. If humans are bitten by infected flea, it leads to development of swelling of the lymph nodes. Through the bite, the bacteria gains entry through the skin, following which it travels through the lymph nodes, giving rise to an array of symptoms .
Bubonic plague is a bacterial disease characterized by development of buboes in the armpits, neck and groin region, hence the name bubonic plague. It is a disease which can cause death in the affected population, if prompt treatment is not initiated. The disease primarily occurs due to infected fleas which reside on rodents, and bite the humans.
The bacteria Yersinia pestis causes bubonic plague. The disease is spread through infected fleas which harbor on rodents, and bite the human, eventually gaining entry into the system. The bacteria enter the system through the skin and travel through the lymphatics leading to swelling of the lymph glands.
Development of buboes in the groin, neck or the armpit region is the characteristic symptom of bubonic plague. The area of the insect bite is where the bubo develops. Individuals may also experience pain in the area of the insect bite prior to the occurrence of bubo. In addition, affected individuals also suffer from fever, along with chills, malaise, headache and muscle ache.
Diagnosis of bubonic plague is made through a preliminary physical examination of the bubo. In addition, a rapid diagnostic tool known as immunofluorescence of the body fluids has been developed which enables analyzing the presence of small amounts of bacteria within 15 minutes.
A strong antibiotic regime is helpful for treating bubonic plague. If antibiotics are given when the primary signs appear, then individuals can recover fully from the disease.