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Candida Albicans Vaginitis


Presentation

  • A thin/watery gray-white discharge is present A fouls smell is present and often described as an Amine Odor or Fishy Smell. This smell is intensified after unprotected intercourse or when KOH is added (AKA Positive Whiff Test).[stomponstep1.com]
  • The patient was a 28 year old woman who presented with symptoms of vulval pruritis and profuse vaginal discharge for six months.[sti.bmj.com]
  • The results of demographic variables are in agreement with the present study. Wallimg’s study ( 17 ) in the United States showed that most candidiasis vaginitis samples were not pregnant, which does not agree with the present study.[archcid.portal.tools]
  • Yeast is believed to be present in the vagina of 20%-50% of healthy women.[emedicinehealth.com]
Camping
  • Cyclic AMP (cAMP) production was also induced by (CKPV)2 administration in macrophages.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Rhinitis
  • A possible link with allergy, particularly allergic rhinitis. Investigation Send a high vaginal swab for microscopy, culture and sensitivity to exclude alternative diagnoses. Consider measuring vaginal pH (see under 'Treatment failure', above).[patient.info]
Overeating
  • Vaginal triazole resistant C albicans isolates are extremely rare in non-immunocompromised HIV seronegative women. 1 To our knowledge, only a single case has been reported to date. 2 As over the counter oral triazole antifungals are now widely available[sti.bmj.com]
  • This can be associated with the over use of antibiotics because they kill both good and bad bacteria.[naturalcandidacleansing.com]
  • Symptoms not settling after using over-the-counter treatment. Two episodes in six months and the patient has not seen a healthcare professional about this for over one year. The patient/partner has had a previous sexually transmitted infection.[patient.info]
  • Over-the-counter products can usually treat these infections. Shop for over-the-counter yeast infection treatments.[healthline.com]
Urticaria
  • […] pemphigoid, herpes gestationalis and dermatitis herpetiformis Gram negative bacilli Donovanosis Chancroid Granulomatous disorders Including Crohn's disease and sarcoidosis Spirochaetes Syphilis Vasculopathic disorders Including Behcet's disease and urticaria[nps.org.au]
Petechiae
  • Many leukocytes are seen on microscopic examination Patchy Erythema on cervix is referred to as Strawberry Petechiae. Note that this finding can be easily confused with Cervicitis (Gon/Chlyamdia).[stomponstep1.com]
Confusion
  • Note that this finding can be easily confused with Cervicitis (Gon/Chlyamdia).[stomponstep1.com]
Vaginal Discharge
  • The patient was a 28 year old woman who presented with symptoms of vulval pruritis and profuse vaginal discharge for six months.[sti.bmj.com]
  • Wet Prep (AKA Wet Mount Test) – microscopic examination of vaginal discharge used to differentiate between different types of vulvovaginitis. The vaginal specimen is obtained using a speculum and a que tip similar to how one gets a pap smear.[stomponstep1.com]
  • Your doctor may take a sample of the vaginal discharge to be examined in a laboratory under a microscope. Your doctor can confirm that you have Trichomonas vaginitis by examining your vaginal discharge under a microscope.[drugs.com]
  • Symptoms of Yeast Infection and Bacterial Vaginosis Like bacterial vaginosis, yeast infection may result in a vaginal discharge.[emedicinehealth.com]
Dyspareunia
  • Inflammation leads to burning, itching, erythema, dysuria and dyspareunia. Many leukocytes are seen on microscopic examination Patchy Erythema on cervix is referred to as Strawberry Petechiae.[stomponstep1.com]
  • Symptoms and Signs Vaginal vulvar pruritus, burning, or irritation (which may be worse during intercourse) and dyspareunia are common, as is a thick, white, cottage cheese–like vaginal discharge that adheres to the vaginal walls.[msdmanuals.com]
  • There was no significant difference (P 0.05) between the two groups before and after the treatment in symptoms including vaginal itching, discharge, vulva irritation, dysuria and dyspareunia, according to Chi-square test.[archcid.portal.tools]
  • Dyspareunia can result from a combination of coital physical, chemical and biological trauma. Recurrent candidiasis is an undoubted problem and the vast majority of sufferers are healthy women.[nps.org.au]
Dysuria
  • Inflammation leads to burning, itching, erythema, dysuria and dyspareunia. Many leukocytes are seen on microscopic examination Patchy Erythema on cervix is referred to as Strawberry Petechiae.[stomponstep1.com]
  • Typical symptoms of VVC include pruritus, vaginal soreness, dyspareunia, external dysuria, and abnormal vaginal discharge. None of these symptoms is specific for VVC.[cdc.gov]
  • […] especially under foreskin, may or may not be itchy White ‘curd like’ vaginal discharge although discharge can appear normal Swelling of foreskin if severe Genital/vulval itch, discomfort Fissures Superficial erosions Superficial dysparuenia External dysuria[sti.guidelines.org.au]
Vaginal Odor
  • Symptoms Bacterial vaginosis — Bacterial vaginosis causes an abnormal grayish-white vaginal discharge with a foul-smelling vaginal odor.[drugs.com]
  • When to see a doctor See your doctor if you develop unusual vaginal discomfort, especially if: You have a particularly unpleasant vaginal odor, discharge or itching. You've never had a vaginal infection.[mayoclinic.org]
  • Symptomatic women experience mild to severe inflammation, itching, burning, vaginal odor, and a profuse greenish yellow vaginal discharge. Men may notice irritation of the penis, burning with urination, or penile discharge.[innerbody.com]
  • odor If you have these vaginal yeast infection symptoms, then it is likely that you have a vaginal yeast infection.[candida-albicans-cure.com]
Vulvar Edema
  • Signs include vulvar edema, fissures, excoriations, and thick curdy vaginal discharge.[cdc.gov]

Workup

  • Following laboratory workup, 71 specimens were positive for genus Candida (30.6%). Further speciation showed 32.4% as Candida albicans , 45.07% Candida parapsilosis and 22.53% of Candida glabrata .[ijpmonline.org]
  • Following laboratory workup, 71 specimens were positive for genus Candida (30.6%). Further speciation showed 32.4% as Candida albicans, 45.07% Candida parapsilosis and 22.53% of Candida glabrata.[ijpmonline.org]
Helicobacter Pylori
  • Comparative study of Nigella Sativa and triple therapy in eradication of Helicobacter Pylori in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2010; 16 (3): 207-14[ DOI ][ PubMed ] 17. Wallimg AD.[archcid.com]
  • Comparative study of Nigella Sativa and triple therapy in eradication of Helicobacter Pylori in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2010; 16 (3):207-14. [ DOI ] [ PubMed ] 17 . Wallimg AD.[archcid.portal.tools]

Treatment

  • Intravenous treatment with rhMBL alone or in combination with oral itraconazole enhanced the clearance of C. albicans from the vagina of wild-type or MBL gene knockout (KO) mice; rhMBL was modestly effective alone.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] two groups, suggesting that short-term treatment is most efficacious and can be expected to work better since patient compliance is primarily a function of duration of treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Results: 85% of patients favourably responded to treatment, 10% remained asymptomatic for a period of less than one year and 5% of patients did not respond to treatment.[xn--revistaespaoladeozonoterapia-7xc.es]
  • Prior terconazole use was not associated with treatment failure (P 0.09). Ten failures received boric acid suppositories as subsequent treatment; a cure was effected in 4 (40%).[jhu.pure.elsevier.com]
  • […] the treatment (P 0.001).[archcid.portal.tools]

Prognosis

  • What Is the Prognosis? Once treatment starts, most candidiasis infections get better within about 2 weeks. Recurrences are fairly common. Long-lasting thrush is sometimes related to pacifiers.[healthychildren.org]
  • Prognosis Medications cure up to 90% of vaginal infections. If you do not improve with the first treatment, your doctor usually can cure your infection with a longer course of medication, or a different medication.[drugs.com]
  • Complications and prognosis Cure rate is 80% for uncomplicated cases [ 1 ]. Depression and psychosexual problems can occur in women who suffer recurrent episodes.[patient.info]

Etiology

  • Candida albicans and non-albicans species as etiological agent of vaginitis in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010; 10 (1): 89-97[ PubMed ] 4. Berek JS. Berek and Novak's gynecology. 2012; : 522-6 5. Ahmad A, Khan AU.[archcid.com]
  • While many theories have been proposed, the etiology of this condition remains unknown.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Etiology. Inflammation of the vaginal mucosa is invariably related to a disturbance in normal vaginal physiology.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Clinical study of Candida vaginitis in Ahvaz, Iran and susceptibility of agents to topical antifungal Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi 1 , Mahin Najafyan 2 , Maryam Alidadi 3 Abstract Objective : To evaluate etiological agents of vaginal candidiasis in Ahvaz, Iran[pjms.com.pk]

Epidemiology

  • An epidemiological survey of vulvovaginal candidiasis in Italy. Eur JObstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003 Sep 10;110(1):66-72. [ Links ] 16. VermitskyJP, SelfMJ, ChadwickSG, TramaJP, AdelsonME, MordechaiE, et al.[scielo.iics.una.py]
  • "The epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidosis: a mycological perspective". Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 37 (3): 250–61. doi : 10.3109/1040841X.2011.576332.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] vulvovaginitis, paronychia, onychomycosis, intertrigo); ulcers or pseudomembranes in esophagus, gastrointestinal tract or bladder; hematogenous dissemination may produce lesions in kidney, spleen, lung, liver, prosthetic cardiac valve, eye, meninges, brain EPIDEMIOLOGY[msdsonline.com]
  • […] not only social determinants of health, but also other affiliated fields and disciplines that contribute to the current knowledge and science of community medicine, social medicine, public health, health economics, health education, health policy, and epidemiology[journals.sbmu.ac.ir]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • […] by an alkaline vaginal discharge may lead to chronic irritation and inflammation Other - Some authors have associated vulvar vestibulitis with a history of sexual abuse, elective abortions, severe marital conflicts, depression, and anxiety Neurologic pathophysiology[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Pathophysiology, causative organisms of bacterial vaginosis can cause diseases of the genital tract by releasing high as sialidases and mucinases enzymes that alter the mucosal barrier, decrease defense mechanisms of the cervix and vagina, increase the[imedpub.com]

Prevention

  • Prevention and treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis using exogenous Lactobacillus . J. Obstet. Gynecol.[futuremedicine.com]
  • Thin/watery frothy (bubbly) yellow-green discharge On Saline prep see motile flagellate protozoa/trophozoites Can have malodorous/fishy smell/foul smell Alkalotic pH ( 4.5 in reproductive age) Treatment oral metronidazole for both partners to prevent[stomponstep1.com]
  • Prevention Because Trichomonas vaginitis is a STD that can be transmitted during sexual activity, you can help to prevent infection by: Not having sex Having sex with only one uninfected partner Consistently using male latex condoms during sexual intercourse[drugs.com]
  • Prevention Good hygiene may prevent some types of vaginitis from recurring and may relieve some symptoms: Avoid baths, hot tubs and whirlpool spas. Avoid irritants. These include scented tampons, pads, douches and scented soaps.[mayoclinic.org]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Candida Infection of the Skin. MedlinePlus. Definition of Invasive Candidiasis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Patient Education: Vaginal Yeast Infection (Beyond the Basics). UpToDate.[everydayhealth.com]

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