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Carbon Disulfide Poisoning

Carbon Disulphide Toxicity


Presentation

  • The patient presented also serves as a remainder that neurodegenerative disorders of apparently unknown origin sometimes derive from occupational toxic exposures suffered in the past.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinical presentation Acute carbon disulfide exposure can cause eye and skin irritation and CNS depression.[mhmedical.com]
  • Deeply researched and boldly presented, this book brings to light an industrial hazard whose egregious history ranks with those of asbestos, lead, and mercury.[books.google.it]
  • Neuropathies from industrial agents (either from occupational or environmental sources), presenting after either limited or long-term exposure, are insidious. Patients may present with subtle pain or weakness.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Overview Chronic toxic encephalopathy Etiology : chronic or repeated high-dose exposure (e.g,, inhalation) to organic solvents or heavy metals cerebral, cerebellar, and brain stem atrophy Presentation Mental conditions (e.g., personality changes) Multifocal[amboss.com]
Fatigue
  • […] or inhalation of styrene released from disposed packaging materials, cigarette smoke, automobile emissions, or manufacturing of automobile parts, fiberglass, plastic pipes, and insulation for wiring and appliances Effects (mainly due to inhalation) Fatigue[amboss.com]
  • […] the toxicity of H2S, there are regulatory limits at federal, state and local levels: Concentration (ppm) – Symptoms/Effects 0.0001-0.0003 – Background Levels 0.01-1.5 – Odor Threshold 2-5 – Nausea, Headaches, Breathing Difficulties (Asthmatics) 20 – Fatigue[asphaltmagazine.com]
  • […] poisoning effects including tremor, prostration, dyspnea, cyanosis and vascular collapse psychosis or narcosis may result from acute levels of up 500–1000ppm Long-term exposure at high levels are responsible for: nervous system effects including symptoms of fatigue[dnrm.qld.gov.au]
  • This syndrome consists of extreme fatigue, hyperirritability, insomnia, pathological shyness, and depression."[noamalgam.com]
  • If the quantity swallowed is not a fatal one, consciousness returns rapidly, but fatigue, dizziness and headache may last for days.[archive.org]
Dyspnea
  • Identified health effects (NICNAS Sodium Ethyl Xanthate, May 1995) include: irritation to eyes, skin and respiratory tract acute poisoning effects including tremor, prostration, dyspnea, cyanosis and vascular collapse psychosis or narcosis may result[dnrm.qld.gov.au]
Nausea
  • […] pain Irritation of skin, mucous membranes, and respiratory tract Diagnosis : clinical Treatment : supportive Dimethylformamide (DMF) Sources of exposure : inhalation of or skin contact with solvent used to produce fibers, films, and coatings Effects Nausea[amboss.com]
  • Cease working immediately if you experience dizziness, headache, nausea, euphoria or convulsions, as these are symptoms of acute inhalation of carbon disulfide.[sciencing.com]
  • Due to the toxicity of H2S, there are regulatory limits at federal, state and local levels: Concentration (ppm) – Symptoms/Effects 0.0001-0.0003 – Background Levels 0.01-1.5 – Odor Threshold 2-5 – Nausea, Headaches, Breathing Difficulties (Asthmatics)[asphaltmagazine.com]
  • Consequences Safety and health consequences of these incidents included inhalation symptoms (nausea and vomiting), dizziness, burns, the evacuation of surrounding areas, and an explosion that ejected material up to 30m.[dnrm.qld.gov.au]
  • The first symptoms are from the digestive tract – abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, perhaps vomiting, with constipation later. One to a few days later neurological symptoms appear.[noamalgam.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • Nausea and vomiting Toxic hepatopathy (i.e., jaundice, alcohol intolerance, abdominal pain ) Rashes Diagnosis : clinical Treatment : supportive Formaldehyde Sources of exposure : inhalation, skin/ eye contact, and ingestion of disinfectants, tobacco smoke[amboss.com]
  • The first symptoms are from the digestive tract – abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, perhaps vomiting, with constipation later. One to a few days later neurological symptoms appear.[noamalgam.com]
Tachycardia
  • […] dysfunction that may be present include the following: Hypohidrosis or hyperhidrosis Diarrhea or constipation Urinary incontinence or retention Gastroparesis Sicca syndrome Blurry vision Facial flushes Orthostatic intolerance Sexual dysfunction Cramping Tachycardia[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Heart racing (the medical term is tachycardia) is quite common in people with mercury poisoning. The heart rate may vary dramatically over a period of a few minutes for no apparent reason. Heart pain (angina) may occur.[noamalgam.com]
Cyanosis
  • Identified health effects (NICNAS Sodium Ethyl Xanthate, May 1995) include: irritation to eyes, skin and respiratory tract acute poisoning effects including tremor, prostration, dyspnea, cyanosis and vascular collapse psychosis or narcosis may result[dnrm.qld.gov.au]
  • The signs are : loss of consciousness: bailor of the face, with blueness (cyanosis) of the lips; widening of the pupils; a rapid, feeble pulse; shivering; convulsions.[archive.org]
Ulcer
  • […] chronic intoxication by CS 2 ; an industrial disease encountered among rubber workers and makers of artificial silk (rayon) by the viscose process; characterized by insomnia, listlessness, and irritability, followed by paralyses, impaired vision, peptic ulcer[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Muscle Weakness
  • There is hypersensitivity to touch and pain, unusual phantom sensations, as well as muscle weakness that often begins in the soles of the feet and the big toe and slowly spreads up to the body. Movement may also become clumsy.[noamalgam.com]
Muscle Weakness
  • There is hypersensitivity to touch and pain, unusual phantom sensations, as well as muscle weakness that often begins in the soles of the feet and the big toe and slowly spreads up to the body. Movement may also become clumsy.[noamalgam.com]
Psychiatric Manifestation
  • Short-term (days to weeks) high-level exposure to carbon disulfide is associated with psychiatric manifestations ranging from mood change to frank delirium and psychosis.[mhmedical.com]
Irritability
  • الصفحة 128 - Irritant: A chemical, which is not corrosive, but which causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact.[books.google.com]
  • […] car·bon di·sul·fide (CS 2 ) poi·son·ing acute or chronic intoxication by CS 2 ; an industrial disease encountered among rubber workers and makers of artificial silk (rayon) by the viscose process; characterized by insomnia, listlessness, and irritability[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Clinical presentation Acute carbon disulfide exposure can cause eye and skin irritation and CNS depression.[mhmedical.com]
  • References: [2] [4] Pyrethroid Sources of exposure : skin contact with, ingestion of, or inhalation of insecticides (e.g., malaria control); permethrin treatment of scabies, head and pubic lice Effects Headaches, dizziness, fatigue, coma Nausea Irritation[amboss.com]
Headache
  • References: [2] [4] Pyrethroid Sources of exposure : skin contact with, ingestion of, or inhalation of insecticides (e.g., malaria control); permethrin treatment of scabies, head and pubic lice Effects Headaches, dizziness, fatigue, coma Nausea Irritation[amboss.com]
  • Cease working immediately if you experience dizziness, headache, nausea, euphoria or convulsions, as these are symptoms of acute inhalation of carbon disulfide.[sciencing.com]
  • A Delaware Rayon worker claimed she suffered irrationality, unconscious spells, lack of self-control, nightmares, crying spells, headaches, weakened eyesight, and a loss of libido. Not only did the president, J.[undark.org]
  • Due to the toxicity of H2S, there are regulatory limits at federal, state and local levels: Concentration (ppm) – Symptoms/Effects 0.0001-0.0003 – Background Levels 0.01-1.5 – Odor Threshold 2-5 – Nausea, Headaches, Breathing Difficulties (Asthmatics)[asphaltmagazine.com]
  • […] tremor, prostration, dyspnea, cyanosis and vascular collapse psychosis or narcosis may result from acute levels of up 500–1000ppm Long-term exposure at high levels are responsible for: nervous system effects including symptoms of fatigue, insomnia, headaches[dnrm.qld.gov.au]
Peripheral Neuropathy
  • Features of Textbook of Peripheral Neuropathy Include : ̈ Practical yet comprehensiveóan accessible ìgo-toî reference for clinicians ̈ Covers all clinically relevant peripheral neuropathies ̈ Clinical Pearls and Key Points are set off from the text for[books.google.de]
  • Chronic lower-level exposure can cause parkinsonism and other poorly reversible CNS impairments, optic neuritis, peripheral neuropathy, and atherosclerosis.[mhmedical.com]
  • Human studies infrequently have associated exposure to environmental sources with peripheral neuropathy.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Agitation
  • The manhole cover should be left open during this heating process and the water in all parts of the tank should be agitated occasionally to ensure uniform distribution of the heat.[archive.org]
Confusion
  • No labelling on the inside bag of boxed xanthate led to confusion over the contents which were then inadvertently added to SMBS. (This labelling is required by the ADG code and has been communicated to known suppliers in Queensland.)[dnrm.qld.gov.au]
  • It can also cause sudden confusion or disorientation or loss of train of thought. Mercury affects the senses.[noamalgam.com]

Workup

  • […] blood Vitamin B-12 Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance Axonal neuropathy Cryoglobins and hepatitis C evaluation Immunofixation (for paraneoplastic neuropathy) Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level: Usually normal in toxic neuropathy See Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]

Treatment

  • The textbookprovides an evidence-based approach to testing, differential diagnosis, and treatment, and should serveas a trusted resource for healthcare professionals confronting the many manifestations of peripheralneuropathy in clinical practice.[books.google.de]
  • […] percent rayon reaction refineries reported Solvents Soucek sources specific absorption rate Stagnation Levels Stanford Research Institute STAR Ranking sulfur burden sulfur compounds sulfur plant capacity sulfur recovery plants synthesis gas tail gas treatment[books.google.com]
  • Treatment Emergency and supportive measures. Severe acute exposure would present as nonspecific CNS depression. Maintain an open airway and assist ventilation if necessary (See Airway and Breathing ). Administer supplemental oxygen.[mhmedical.com]
  • Most organic solvents do not have an antidote; therefore, treatment is generally supportive. For an overview of other types of substance toxicity (e.g., with organophosphates ), see the learning card on poisoning.[amboss.com]
  • Treatment of cyclohexanone with lithium 4-methyl-2,6-di- t -butylphenoxide ( 12 ) (readily obtained by treatment of the phenol with n -butyllithium) and CS 2, followed by methylation, leads via the dithiocarboxylate ion ( 13 ) to the a -ketoketene dithioacetal[reag.paperplane.io]

Prognosis

  • ., memory impairment) Grading Clinical features Diagnosis Prognosis Stage I Difficulty concentrating Poor memory Mood changes History Psychopathological findings Complete recovery within 2 years if no further exposure occurs.[amboss.com]
  • Clinical prognosis of patients with diagnosed chronic solvent intoxication. Acta Neurol Scand. 1982 May. 65(5):488-503. [Medline]. Antti-Poika M. Overall prognosis of patients with diagnosed chronic organic solvent intoxication.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Etiology

  • Overview Chronic toxic encephalopathy Etiology : chronic or repeated high-dose exposure (e.g,, inhalation) to organic solvents or heavy metals cerebral, cerebellar, and brain stem atrophy Presentation Mental conditions (e.g., personality changes) Multifocal[amboss.com]
  • In some patients, extensive search for an etiology may fail to uncover the exact cause of neuropathy. Many chemicals are known to cause neuropathy in laboratory animals.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Psychometric Evidence that Dental Amalgam Mercury May be an Etiological Factor in Schizophrenia, Siblerud, Motl and Kienholz, Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, volume 14, number 4, pages 201-9, 1999. The medical term is bipolar disorder.[noamalgam.com]

Epidemiology

  • الصفحة 69 - Epidemiology is defined as the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to control of health problems. ‏[books.google.com]
  • Epidemiologic studies indicate that carbon disulfide exposure is associated with adverse reproductive function and outcomes.[mhmedical.com]
  • Página 33 - USES OF MEDICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE CONTROL AND PREVENTION OF AIR POLLUTION. ‎[books.google.es]
  • Some of these have been associated with neuropathy in clinical epidemiologic studies, confirming their ability to injure the human peripheral nervous system (PNS).[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology Neuropathy may be categorized by presentation (ie, motor or sensory symptoms), electrodiagnostic features, and neuroanatomical location within the peripheral nerve (ie, demyelinating or axonal, neuronopathy, ion channel neuropathy, neuromuscular[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Página 33 - USES OF MEDICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE CONTROL AND PREVENTION OF AIR POLLUTION. ‎[books.google.es]
  • Eating, drink, taking medication, or any other activity involving ingestion or the risk of ingestion should not be done near carbon disulfide to prevent poisoning.[sciencing.com]
  • If necessary, tie the patient's arms and legs to prevent him from injuring himself and others. Call a physician at once.[archive.org]
  • Engineering Store xanthate boxes to allow sufficient ventilation to disperse any fumes and ensure storage areas prevent build up of humidity. Use extraction hoods with scrubbers to eliminate xanthate dust from mixing.[dnrm.qld.gov.au]
  • Thus primed by a wealth of knowledge, personal experience, a newfound interest in the rayon industry, and, most of all, dedication to ending a disease she believed could easily be prevented, Hamilton responded immediately to the telegram she received[undark.org]

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Last updated: 2014-10-18 14:15