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Carcinoid Tumor and Carcinoid Syndrome

Carcinoid Cancer


Presentation

  • Carcinoid tumors are usually present in the gastrointestinal system or lungs, but they can also be found in the breast, ovaries, testicles, or kidneys. It usually occurs in people who are over 50 years old. 1.[health.facty.com]
  • Carcinoid heart disease, which develops in the majority of patients with carcinoid syndrome, presents the anesthesiologist with more diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Presented by Richard R. P.[carcinoid.org]
  • Symptoms may not be present all the time. They may be brought on or made worse by certain foods, activities or medical procedures.[mdanderson.org]
  • Not all patients with carcinoid tumors will present with symptoms of carcinoid syndrome.[oncolink.org]
Ankle Pain
  • Carcinoid syndrome symptoms may include: Flushing (redness or warm feeling) of the face and neck Diarrhea Shortness of breath, fast heartbeat, tiredness or swelling of the feet and ankles Pain or full feeling in the abdomen Difficulty breathing or wheezing[mdanderson.org]

Workup

  • If you have symptoms that extend beyond diarrhea, talk to your doctor about doing a workup for MCT. Most people with an MCT don’t seek treatment until the tumor has spread and starts causing additional symptoms.[healthline.com]
  • Then, the workup, the investigation, is initiated. And, in a very small number of patients, the features of the carcinoid syndrome – flushing or obscure diarrhea – are the main features that bring the disease to attention.[carcinoid.org]
  • Ped Clin North Am 48:1539–1557 CrossRef Google Scholar Mingin GC, Hinds A, Nguyen HT, Baskin LS (2004) Children with a febrile urinary tract infection and a negative radiologic workup: factors predictive of recurrence.[link.springer.com]

Treatment

  • Depending on the location of the tumor and whether the tumor has spread throughout the body, treatment options can include medication treatment and/or surgical removal of the tumor. Treatment of abdominal carcinoid tumors.[mcancer.org]
  • When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial.[cancer.gov]
  • […] the best care plan and most effective treatment.[dana-farber.org]
  • Treatment Surgery is often used as the first treatment for carcinoid tumors. If the tumor hasn’t spread, surgery can cure the cancer. Surgery may also be combined with other treatments to reduce the tumor and the symptoms.[stopcancerfund.org]
  • Streptozotocin in the treatment of cancer. Phase II study. Cancer 30:61–67, 1972. CrossRef Google Scholar 17. Feldman JM, Quickel RE (Jr), Muracek RL, Lebovitz HE. Streptozotocin treatment of metastatic carcinoid tumors.[link.springer.com]

Prognosis

  • Ratio: Sutent vs Afinitor in Advanced pancreatic NETs 9/29/2018 – Negative Surgical Margins May not Improve Survival in Pancreatic NETs 9/13/2018 – Natural History and Prognosis of Pancreatic NETs 9/1/2018 – Ethanol-based Ablation of Small Pancreatic[pancreatica.org]
  • There is a very wide spectrum of carcinoid tumors and the prognosis for patients is dependent on how early the tumor is treated.[mcancer.org]
  • Like almost all cancers, earlier diagnosis is very important for the overall prognosis.[stopcancerfund.org]
  • Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options depend on the following: Where the tumor is in the gastrointestinal tract. The size of the tumor.[cancer.gov]
  • Overall, the prognosis is usually excellent.[medlineplus.gov]

Etiology

  • Disease Bronchial / Lung Carcinoid Etiology Lung and bronchial carcinoids are diagnosed most commonly in septuagenarians and are associated with smoking.[atlasgeneticsoncology.org]
  • Causes The etiology of carcinoid tumors is not known, but genetic abnormalities, especially in pediatric pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, [9] are suspected.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • J Am Acad Dermatol 35:486–487 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Pandhi RK, Kumar AS, Satish DA, Bhutani LK (1984) Fixed drug eruptions on male genitalia: clinical and etiologic study.[link.springer.com]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology and survival inpatients with carcinoid disease in The Netherlands. An epidemiological study with 2391 patients. Ann Oncol. 2001;12:1295-300. Oberg K. Chemotherapy and biotherapy in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours.[rarediseases.org]
  • Epidemiology References: [1] [2] Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified. Pathophysiology Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine tumors that arise from amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells.[amboss.com]
  • The epidemiology of carcinoid tumors is still poorly understood because of the rarity of large population-based studies (10) .[cebp.aacrjournals.org]
  • This article reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, management, and prognosis of carcinoid tumors.[mdedge.com]
  • Disease Small Intestinal Carcinoid Epidemiology Small intestinal carcinoid tumors account for approximately one third of all small bowel tumors. They comprise 29% of GI carcinoids.[atlasgeneticsoncology.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine tumors that arise from amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells.[amboss.com]
  • NETs of the lung, thymus, and stomach von Hippel-Lindau syndrome – pancreatic neoplasia of neuroendocrine origin occurs in 15% of cases Neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen disease) – infrequent carcinoids of the duodenum Tuberous sclerosis Pathophysiology[arupconsult.com]
  • Catecholamines play a role in the pathophysiology of the carcinoid flush ( 26 ) and in abnormal cardiovascular function ( 27 )( 28 ).[clinchem.aaccjnls.org]
  • Pathophysiologic Basis of Disease Mostly carcinoid tumors are found incidentally during surgery for other purposes. Clinical course in the patient does not necessarily relate to the extent of the tumor.[jscisociety.com]

Prevention

  • Treatment with the hormone octreotide before any medical procedure can help prevent a carcinoid crisis from occurring. People with carcinoid syndrome are advised to wear a medical bracelet in the event of an emergency.[mskcc.org]
  • Pellagra may be prevented by ensuring adequate protein in the diet and by taking niacin. Drugs that block the production of serotonin, such as methyldopa, also help prevent pellagra.[msdmanuals.com]
  • How can I prevent carcinoid tumors? Presently, there is no way to prevent carcinoid tumors. There may be an association between carcinoid tumors and smoking, hence not starting or quitting smoking may reduce the risk of developing carcinoid tumors.[oncolink.org]
  • Gave PA a description of carcinoid crisis and the protocols to prevent or treat it. She promised that anesthesiologist would have information early. June 4, 2014 : Had the bladder cancer procedure. Four tumors removed.[cyrilfb.com]
  • Radiation therapy High levels of radiation are used to kill cancer cells or prevent them from multiplying, while minimizing damage to healthy cells.[my.clevelandclinic.org]

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