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Carcinoid Tumor of the Lung

Carcinoid Tumour Pulmonary


Presentation

  • The symptoms presented are those associated with bronchial obstruction, such as coughing, wheezing, and dyspnea. Over one-third of patients are asymptomatic and have an incidentally detected peripheral pulmonary nodule.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Herein, we present a case of a 28-year old female who presented with hemoptysis and was diagnosed with an IMT of lung in the first trimester of pregnancy.[lungindia.com]
Pain
  • Recurrent pneumonia, hemoptysis, and chest pain are also common.[msdmanuals.com]
  • […] thickening of valves Develops in 45-60% of patients with metastatic disease as late complication May be precipitated by certain foods or drinks high in tyramine (eg, blue cheese, chocolate, red wine) Gastrointestinal manifestations Diarrhea Abdominal pain[arupconsult.com]
  • Carcinoid tumors in the lungs Signs and symptoms of carcinoid lung tumors include: Chest pain Wheezing Shortness of breath Diarrhea Redness or a feeling of warmth in your face and neck (skin flushing) Weight gain, particularly around the midsection and[mayoclinic.org]
  • ) a tumour in the lung may cause a cough, which may make you cough up blood, and cause wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain and tiredness a tumour in the stomach may cause pain, weight loss, tiredness and weakness Some tumours may not cause any symptoms[nhs.uk]
  • […] slow growing tumors but are nevertheless capable of metastasizing. can be variable, dependent on the location: carcinoid tumors involving the jejunum and ileum can be large at presentation but are usually found incidentally rectal carcinoids may cause pain[radiopaedia.org]
Fever
  • There was no history of breathlessness, fever, anorexia or weight loss. She was in the first trimester of her third pregnancy. Her chest examination was unremarkable. A chest radiograph showed a well-circumscribed lesion in the left hilar region.[lungindia.com]
  • We present a 47-year-old male with a tobacco index of 9 and dyslipidemia, with a history of intermittent fever, cough with hyaline sputum, left scapular pain and 5 Kg weight loss in the past six months.[elsevier.es]
  • He denies hemoptysis, fevers, chills, night sweats, weight loss, or diarrhea. During the past year, he occasionally experienced hot flashes after having a hot shower. He also notes intermittent abdominal pain, but he is otherwise healthy.[clevelandclinicmeded.com]
  • (a genetic disorder) are risk factors in some individuals Atypical Carcinoid Tumor of Lung arises more often in the proximal airways of the lung and can cause chest pain, breathing difficulties, fatigue, and other general signs and symptoms, such as fever[dovemed.com]
  • Persons with carcinoid lung tumors may complain of the following symptoms: Cough that does not go away Coughing up blood Difficulty in breathing Wheezing Fever (due to infection in the lung) Sometimes the health care practitioner considers the possibility[emedicinehealth.com]
Leg Edema
  • This can cause fluid to build up in the body, particularly the legs (edema) and as it progresses can cause fluid to build up in the lungs as well (pulmonary edema).[oncolink.org]
Pseudotumor
  • Inflammatory pseudotumor. Radiographics 2003;23:719-29. 6. Bhagat P, Bal A, Das A, Singh N, Singh H. Pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor: A diagnostic dilemma. Virchows Arch 2013;463:743-7. 7.[lungindia.com]
Internal Bleeding
  • Rarely a gastrointestinal carcinoid can cause internal bleeding. Diagnosis Carcinoid tumors can be seen on chest x-rays and computed tomography (CT) scans.[drugs.com]
Cough
  • The symptoms presented are those associated with bronchial obstruction, such as coughing, wheezing, and dyspnea. Over one-third of patients are asymptomatic and have an incidentally detected peripheral pulmonary nodule.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • When symptoms are present, usually there is coughing or wheezing. The cough might produce blood in the phlegm or sputum. If the tumor is large enough to block an air passage, a person might develop an infection called post-obstructive pneumonia.[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • Lung carcinoids typically present with a cough or hemoptysis. Findings may closely mimic malignant tumours of the lung, i.e. lung cancer. The definitive diagnosis is rendered by a microscopic examination, after excision.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Half of patients are asymptomatic, and half present with symptoms of airway obstruction, including dyspnea, wheezing, and cough, which often leads to a misdiagnosis of asthma. Recurrent pneumonia, hemoptysis, and chest pain are also common.[msdmanuals.com]
Dyspnea
  • The symptoms presented are those associated with bronchial obstruction, such as coughing, wheezing, and dyspnea. Over one-third of patients are asymptomatic and have an incidentally detected peripheral pulmonary nodule.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Half of patients are asymptomatic, and half present with symptoms of airway obstruction, including dyspnea, wheezing, and cough, which often leads to a misdiagnosis of asthma. Recurrent pneumonia, hemoptysis, and chest pain are also common.[msdmanuals.com]
  • In symptomatic patients, the most common clinical findings are those associated with bronchial obstruction, such as persistent atelectasis, recurrent pneumonia, persistent cough, wheezing, hemoptysis, or dyspnea.[clevelandclinicmeded.com]
  • Clinical Observations A 43-year-old male came to our emergency department due to moderate-exertion dyspnea that had been evolving over the previous 24 h, accompanied by pleuritic chest pain and cough with hemoptoic expectoration (75 cm 2 while at home[archbronconeumol.org]
Dry Cough
  • A 28-year-old lady presented with dry cough for 2 years and hemoptysis for 1 week. She had three episodes of hemoptysis (100 ml per episode). There was no history of breathlessness, fever, anorexia or weight loss.[lungindia.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • pain (often secondary to fibrosis) Gastric carcinoids Type 1 associated with chronic atrophic gastritis – absent acid secretion and hypergastrinemia Type 2 associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, hypergastrinemia, and MEN1 Type 3 sporadic – normal[arupconsult.com]
  • These may include persistent cough or hoarseness, for tumors in the lungs; or abdominal pain, cramping, nausea, vomiting, or changes in bowel movements, for tumors in the small intestine.[blog.dana-farber.org]
  • pain carcinoid syndrome : in 8% of patients with a carcinoid tumor 9 Location gastrointestinal tract carcinoid (60-85% of all carcinoids) 11,12 small bowel : 40% of gastrointestinal carcinoids, mostly in the terminal ileum rectum ( 22.5%) colon ( 15%[radiopaedia.org]
  • CT and MRI ( magnetic resonance imaging ) scans are commonly used in the evaluation of abdominal pain, weight loss, abnormal liver tests, and other symptoms.[medicinenet.com]
  • pain Diarrhea Nausea, vomiting and inability to pass stool due to intestinal blockage (bowel obstruction) Rectal bleeding Rectal pain Redness or a feeling of warmth in your face and neck (skin flushing) When to see a doctor If you experience any signs[mayoclinic.org]
Nausea
  • These may include persistent cough or hoarseness, for tumors in the lungs; or abdominal pain, cramping, nausea, vomiting, or changes in bowel movements, for tumors in the small intestine.[blog.dana-farber.org]
  • […] gain, particularly around the midsection and upper back Pink or purple marks on the skin that look like stretch marks Carcinoid tumors in the digestive tract Signs and symptoms of carcinoid tumors in the digestive tract include: Abdominal pain Diarrhea Nausea[mayoclinic.org]
  • In January 2011, the patient complained of fatigue on progressively less exertion and showed disease progression with worsening liver lesions; oral chemotherapy was begun with capecitabine, but was discontinued after four cycles due to intolerance (nausea[revportcardiol.org]
  • For carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal system, symptoms may include: diarrhea or constipation nausea abdominal or rectal pain rectal bleeding For carcinoid tumors of the lungs, symptoms may include: chest pain wheezing or shortness of breath skin[stopcancerfund.org]
  • Side effects of chemo include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, loss of appetite, and a higher risk for infections. Continued Chemoembolization. It's a treatment used to treat a carcinoid tumor that has spread to the liver.[webmd.com]
Colic
  • Our patient is still suffering from hypercalcemia and renal colic, despite repeated parathyroid gland removal, and enucleation of the lung mass. Recent parathyroid scintigraphy with Tc revealed an enlarged parathyroid gland.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chest Pain
  • Recurrent pneumonia, hemoptysis, and chest pain are also common.[msdmanuals.com]
  • Carcinoid tumors in the lungs Signs and symptoms of carcinoid lung tumors include: Chest pain Wheezing Shortness of breath Diarrhea Redness or a feeling of warmth in your face and neck (skin flushing) Weight gain, particularly around the midsection and[mayoclinic.org]
  • pain and tiredness a tumour in the stomach may cause pain, weight loss, tiredness and weakness Some tumours may not cause any symptoms and are discovered by chance.[nhs.uk]
  • For carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal system, symptoms may include: diarrhea or constipation nausea abdominal or rectal pain rectal bleeding For carcinoid tumors of the lungs, symptoms may include: chest pain wheezing or shortness of breath skin[stopcancerfund.org]
  • They usually present as perihilar masses in the fifth decade of life and demonstrate a relatively indolent disease course; however, some patients may present with recurrent pneumonia, cough, hemoptysis, and chest pain.[humpath.com]
Cyanosis
  • Patients with classic carcinoid syndrome may have intermittent attacks of dyspnoea, flushing and cyanosis [ 10 ]. Lymph node metastasis could be a feature of atypical carcinoid tumor [ 11, 12 ].[npplweb.com]
Heart Murmur
  • Carcinoid syndrome symptoms include Flushing Diarrhea Bronchospasm Chronic sequelae of carcinoid syndrome include Telangiectasias Right-sided valvular heart disease Retroperitoneal fibrosis A left-sided heart murmur (mitral stenosis or regurgitation)[msdmanuals.com]
Hirsutism
  • Symptoms of carcinoid syndrome may include: Facial flushing (warmth) and redness Wheezing or asthma-like symptoms Shortness of breath Weakness High blood pressure Weight gain Increased amount of body and facial hair (hirsutism) The symptoms of carcinoid[my.clevelandclinic.org]

Workup

Pleural Mass
  • We report a rare case of a carcinoid tumor presenting as a pleural mass. The classification and X-ray features are described.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • The treatment of carcinoid tumors is complete surgical removal and a more aggressive approach is required in the treatment of atypical carcinoids. A case is presented with a review of the literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There is one previous case report of a high-grade SpCC after treatment of a primary pulmonary collision carcinoid tumor and another report of SpCC of the lung after treatment of a large cell NE carcinoma [ 1, 8 ].[jsms.sch.ac.kr]
  • Treatment Surgery is the main treatment for carcinoid tumors; the exact procedure depends on where the tumor is located. If it is in a large airway, the surgeon may remove just the section of the airway containing the tumor.[drugs.com]
  • Surgery is the main treatment for carcinoid tumors.[icdlist.com]
  • The method of treatment depends on the size of the tumor, its location, and a patient’s overall health. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment. Your surgeon will guide you in this decision making.[centerforthoracicsurgery.com]

Prognosis

  • Although carcinoid tumors are generally felt to be of low grade malignancy, an atypical variant exists that exhibits more virulent behavior and a less favorable prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Small cell lung cancer is the most common subgroup, with rapid progression, aggressive metastatic potential and the worst prognosis. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is rare but also has a poor prognosis.[npplweb.com]
  • Prognosis depends on tumor type. Five-year survival for well-differentiated carcinoids is 90%; for atypical tumors, it is 50 to 70%. Click here for Patient Education NOTE: This is the Professional Version.[msdmanuals.com]
  • In our case, occurrence of SpCC just 6 months after surgical removal of a carcinoid tumor indicated a very aggressive and poor prognosis.[jsms.sch.ac.kr]
  • Prognosis for carcinoids is excellent. Typical carcinoids have better prognosis than atypical carcinoids. Survival rates are higher for people with lung carcinoids that are localized as opposed to tumors that have spread.[centerforthoracicsurgery.com]

Etiology

  • This definition is non-specific and does not necessarily reflect the pathological etiology of p-GGN.[surgicalcasereports.springeropen.com]
  • Disease Bronchial / Lung Carcinoid Etiology Lung and bronchial carcinoids are diagnosed most commonly in septuagenarians and are associated with smoking.[atlasgeneticsoncology.org]
  • Etiology In the past, pulmonary carcinoid tumors were believed to be derived from neural crest cells; however, they currently are understood to be of endodermal origin, arising from stem cells of the bronchial epithelium known as Kulchitsky cells.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • (Etiology) The exact cause of Atypical Carcinoid Tumor of Lung is unknown, but it may develop from preinvasive lesions such as diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine hyperplasia (DIPNECH).[dovemed.com]

Epidemiology

  • […] indicated Bronchial carcinoids – see recommendations for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) Chest x-ray, CBC, and chemistries every 3-6 months for first 2 years CT recommended every 6 months for 2-3 years in NSCLC Echocardiogram – every 2-3 years Background Epidemiology[arupconsult.com]
  • Outcomes of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Database analysis. Surgery 2012;152: 397-402. 7. Loukeri AA, Kampolis CF, Ntokou A, Tsoukalas G, Syrigos K.[jsms.sch.ac.kr]
  • *SEER Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results[cancer.org]
  • Disease Small Intestinal Carcinoid Epidemiology Small intestinal carcinoid tumors account for approximately one third of all small bowel tumors. They comprise 29% of GI carcinoids.[atlasgeneticsoncology.org]
  • The epidemiological, surgical and pathological features of brain metastases from carcinoid tumors are also discussed from the analysis of 44 well-documented cases reported in the literature. brain metastasis carcinoid tumor This is a preview of subscription[link.springer.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • NETs of the lung, thymus, and stomach von Hippel-Lindau syndrome – pancreatic neoplasia of neuroendocrine origin occurs in 15% of cases Neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen disease) – infrequent carcinoids of the duodenum Tuberous sclerosis Pathophysiology[arupconsult.com]
  • […] small foci of atypical hyperplastic bronchial epithelium in adjacent locations), which may represent local metastatic disease or an entirely different histologic abnormality and, when present, may indicate a more aggressive tumor and a poorer prognosis Pathophysiology[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Prevention Unlike most lung tumors, carcinoid tumors have not been associated with smoking, air pollution, or exposure to chemicals. There are no known ways to prevent this type of cancer.[drugs.com]
  • Downloadable PDFs Download free PDFs of our lung carcinoid tumor information About and Key Statistics Causes, Risks, Prevention Detection, Diagnosis, Staging Treatment and Side Effects Next Steps After Treatment More Resources READ MORE Lung Cancer Prevention[cancer.org]
  • In many cases, as in this one, thickening of the leaflets and subvalvular apparatus leads to retraction of the leaflets, which become fixed, preventing coaptation and leaving the valve in a semi-open position.[revportcardiol.org]
  • How can I prevent carcinoid tumors? Presently, there is no way to prevent carcinoid tumors. There may be an association between carcinoid tumors and smoking, hence not starting or quitting smoking may reduce the risk of developing carcinoid tumors.[oncolink.org]
  • Carcinoid Lung Tumor Prevention Unlike most lung tumors, carcinoid lung tumors have not been associated with smoking , air pollution, or other chemical exposures. Therefore, there are no known ways to prevent carcinoid lung tumors.[emedicinehealth.com]

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